Tag Archives: netbsd

Is FreeBSD a Real UNIX?

That question has been asked and answered many times … but the answer was not always obvious to everyone.

Also today is the FreeBSD day – FreeBSD was created exactly 29 years ago – also on 19th on June.

UNIX System

The first UNIX was the AT&T UNIX whose development started in 1969 at Bell Labs. Then AT&T licensed UNIX to outside parties in late 1970s which have life many UNIX variants like:

  • AIX from IBM
  • BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) at University of California
  • SunOS/Solaris from Sun Microsystems
  • HP-UX from HP
  • Xenix from Microsoft

Of course AT&T also worked on UNIX and in the late 1980s jointly with Sun Microsystems they released the UNIX System V Release 4 (SVR4). Then in early 1990s the AT&T company sold its UNIX rights to Novell. Then Novell sold UNIX trademark to Open Group. This UNIX journey ends here as its Open Group ownership and they allow the use of the UNIX trademark for certified operating systems that comply with the Single UNIX Specification (SUS) (and pay $100 000 in the certification process).

BSD UNIX

The BSD UNIX had quite unusual version numbering with 1BSD, 2BSD, 3BSD for subsequent releases.

Below you will find most of them listed with some of their features.

1BSD

  • run PDP-11
  • ex(1) editor

2BSD

  • run PDP-11
  • vi(1) editor
  • C shell

3BSD

  • run VAX-11
  • DEC VT100 terminal

4BSD

  • run VAX-11
  • DARPA funding for CSRG
  • job control in C shell
  • delivermail(8) – antecedent of sendmail(8)
  • improved signals
  • Curses programming library

4.1BSD

  • performance improvements
  • on par with VMS on many benchmarks

4.2BSD

  • BBN preliminary TCP/IP implementation
  • Berkeley Fast File System
  • disk quotas
  • job control
  • run Motorola 68000
  • introduction of Daemon mascot

daemon.1983

4.3BSD

  • improved performance
  • more diverged TCP/IP implementation from BBN

4.3BSD-Reno

  • move towards POSIX compliance
  • NFS implementation
  • status key (CTRL-T)
  • run HP 9000
  • named as “Greatest Software Ever Written”

4.3BSD-Net/1

  • most standard UNIX utilities reimplemented without AT&T code
  • nvi(1) – new vi(1)
  • only few AT&T files remained in kernel

4.3BSD-Net/2

  • all AT&T standard UNIX utilities reimplemented without AT&T code
  • nearly complete operating system that was freely distributable

386BSD (sometimes also called 386/BSD)

  • run Intel 80386
  • basically 4.3BSD-Net/2 ported to x86
  • base for NetBSD
  • base for FreeBSD on 1.0-2.2.8 releases

BSD/386 (later renamed BSD/OS) by BSDi

  • legal trouble with AT&T
  • AT&T USL versus BSDi lawsuit filed against 4.3BSD-Net/2
  • from 18,000 files only 3 had to be removed and 70 modified to show AT&T USL copyright.

4.4BSD-Encumbered

  • released only to AT&T USL licensees

4.4BSD-Lite

  • no longer requires AT&T USL license
  • contained other changes over 4.4BSD-Encumbered

4.4BSD-Lite2

  • last BSD UNIX release
  • after this release CSRG was dissolved
  • FreeBSD since 3.0 also used that code

Intel/x86 Port

The 386BSD UNIX (sometimes also called 386/BSD) was port of the 4.3BSD-Net/2 UNIX to the Intel/x86 architecture. Like recently FreeBSD added support for RISC-V or ARM64. When 386BSD UNIX existed – a group of people took that code and decided that they will develop it under FreeBSD name with their our own way of doing things like serving packages etc.

As you can see the FreeBSD UNIX is – with large simplification – nothing more then 4.3BSD-Net/2 ported to the x86 architecture. But can you call it UNIX? That depends.

FreeBSD UNIX

Let me give you an example from other industry. Can you call Tesla a ‘car’? Yes. Why? Because no one has the copyright for the ‘car’ term. Now imagine this – some company owns the copyright to the ‘car’ term. Now you would not be allowed to call Tesla a ‘car’ without first asking that company for permission. Without such permission you could name Tesla only a car-like vehicle … or automobile – but not simply a ‘car’.

Lets get back to the computing world. Can you officially name FreeBSD a UNIX? No. That is because Open Group company owns copyright to the ‘UNIX’ term. You can call it only a UNIX-like system … but that does not mean its not UNIX. You just can not call it like that because of the lawyers.

NetBSD team also gave good example with their ‘duck’ explanation – https://mollari.netbsd.org/about/call-it-a-duck.html – available here.

Apple paid $100 000 to call their Mac OS X (now macOS) system a UNIX officially.

Linux UNIX

Can you call Linux a UNIX system? Depends which one πŸ™‚ Currently RHEL (Red Hat Enterprise Linux) is not a certified UNIX – Red Hat did not made the $100 000 worth official certification process with Open Group – you can not name RHEL a UNIX system … but RHEL fork can be called officially UNIX. The Inspur-UX is official UNIX because they did that $100 000 certification with Open Group. Probably because they thought that calling their RHEL fork ‘UNIX’ will make their business better.

Does it makes sense? No. But that is just business. Do not seek logic here. Money only.

Summary

Depends if you want the truth or just what the law officially allows πŸ™‚ If you want the truth then yes – FreeBSD is a UNIX system – same as NetBSD or OpenBSD for example. But if you want to obey the law then you can not name these systems UNIX.

EOF

FreeBSD Desktop – Part 22 – Configuration – Aero Snap Extended

I like to post new articles and solutions when I think they are ready. Production tested and stable. Well thought and tested … or at least trying to make things as good as possible in the available time window. Perfectionism definitely does not help making often articles on the blog.

Today’s solution is not perfect but I will ‘ship it’ anyway because good and done is better then perfect. I wanted to rework it so many times that I stopped counting … and I really would like to continue the series – thus I have made a conscious decision to finally release it and hope that maybe someone else will have better ideas to make it better. I really wanted to provide pixel perfect solution with as much screen space used as possible but to deliver it as it is I tested it only on the resolution I use the most – the FullHD one with 1920×1080 pixels.

You may want to check other articles in the FreeBSD Desktop series on the FreeBSD Desktop – Global Page where you will find links to all episodes of the series along with table of contents for each episode’s contents.

Aero Snap

Today I would like to share with You what I call Aero Snap Extended. The original Aero Snap was introduced in Windows 7 and this is how it is described in the Wikipedia page – “Dragging a window to the right or left side of the desktop causes the window to fill the respective half of the screen. Snapping a window to the top of the screen maximizes it. Windows can be resized by stretching them to touch the top or bottom of the screen, which fully increases their vertical screen estate, while retaining their width, these windows can then slide horizontally if moved by the title bar, or pulled off, which returns the window to its original height. In spite of the “Aero” moniker, this feature is available if one uses the Classic theme. This feature is also available on Windows 10.”

This is like the original Aero Snap looks like.

aero

The idea behind original Aero Snap was pretty simple. Its basically these four shortcuts.

[WIN] + [LEFT] – will place window on the left half of the screen.
[WIN] + [RIGHT] – will place window on the right half of the screen.
[WIN] + [UP] – will maximize the window.
[WIN] + [DOWN] – will minimize the window.

Aero Snap Extended

Mine Aero Snap Extended is … well more extended πŸ™‚

As usual its just a small POSIX /bin/sh compatible shell script. There are only two dependencies for it – the /usr/local/bin/xdpyinfo from xdpyinfo package and /usr/local/bin/wmctrl from wmctrl package. At the beginning of the script you will find several ‘settings’ that you may find needed to be tuned to your needs. Most important ones are MARGIN_TOP/MARGIN_LEFT/MARGIN_RIGHT options. Unfortunately MARGIN_BOTTOM is not implemented. Sorry.

geany-aero

Here are the shortcuts that I use for mine version but You may of course use other key then [WIN] for it.

(L) [WIN] + [LEFT] – will place window on the left half of the screen.
(R) [WIN] + [RIGHT] – will place window on the right half of the screen.
(U) [WIN] + [UP] – will place window on the upper half of the screen.
(D) [WIN] + [DOWN] – will place window on the lower half of the screen.

Here is ASCII diagram for its graphical visualization.

+------+------+  +-------------+
|      |      |  |     (U)     |
|      |      |  |             |
| (L)  |  (R) |  +-------------+
|      |      |  |             |
|      |      |  |     (D)     |
+------+------+  +-------------+

… and also a live screenshots.

aero.800.2a

aero.800.2b

(SL) [WIN] + [SHIFT] + [LEFT] – will place window on the left half of the screen taking 2/3 space of the screen.
(SR) [WIN] + [SHIFT] + [RIGHT] – will place window on the right half of the screen taking 1/3 space of the screen.
(SU) [WIN] + [SHIFT] + [UP] – will place window on the upper half of the screen taking 2/3 space of the screen.
(SD) [WIN] + [SHIFT] + [DOWN] – will place window on the lower half of the screen taking 1/3 space of the screen.

Here is ASCII diagram for its graphical visualization.

+--------+----+  +-------------+
|        |    |  |    (SU)     |
|        |    |  |             |
|  (SL)  |(SR)|  |             |
|        |    |  +-------------+
|        |    |  |    (SD)     |
+--------+----+  +-------------+

… and also a live screenshots.

aero.800.3a

aero.800.3b

The above shortcuts are quite simple and easy to remember.

Now here comes when this is more interesting.

Most keyboards – at least those with the best possible keyboard layout in the world – the ANSI standard keyboard (includes 7-row ThinkPad keyboards – have these three keys one next to another – [CTRL] [WIN] [ALT] – some call the [WIN] key as [SUPER] instead. I use [WIN] as it takes shorter to write and it shows where this key came from.

The 87 keys ANSI stand alone keyboard.

keyboard-ansi

The ThinkPad T420s keyboard.

keyboard-ansi-thinkpad

Now back to topic.

How to use these three keys to send windows to various places of the screen to make it easy to memorize and also not to break existing shortcuts … I think I found a way.

{ [CTRL] [WIN] } [ALT] – these two will send windows to the left side of the screen.

[CTRL] { [WIN] [ALT] } – these two will send windows to the right side of the screen.

Now to the point …

(Q1) [CTRL] + [WIN] + [UP] – will take window to the left and upper part of the screen – taking 1/4 of its space.
(Q2) [CTRL] + [WIN] + [DOWN] – will take window to the left and lower part of the screen – taking 1/4 of its space.
(Q3) [WIN] + [ALT] + [UP] – will take window to the right and upper part of the screen – taking 1/4 of its space.
(Q4) [WIN] + [ALT] + [DOWN] – will take window to the right and lower part of the screen – taking 1/4 of its space.

Now for some the exact 1/4 screen for each of these windows may be not suitable.

Thus I also added a modified versions with [SHIFT] key.

(S1) [SHIFT] + [CTRL] + [WIN] + [UP] – will take window to the left and upper part of the screen – taking 2/3 of horizontal and 2/3 vertical space of the screen.
(S2) [SHIFT] + [CTRL] + [WIN] + [DOWN] – will take window to the left and lower part of the screen – taking 2/3 of horizontal and 1/3 vertical space of the screen.
(S3) [SHIFT] + [WIN] + [ALT] + [UP] – will take window to the right and upper part of the screen – taking 1/3 of horizontal and 2/3 vertical space of the screen.
(S4) [SHIFT] + [WIN] + [ALT] + [DOWN] – will take window to the right and lower part of the screen – taking 1/3 of horizontal and 1/3 vertical space of the screen.

Here is ASCII diagram for its graphical visualization.

+------+------+  +--------+----+
| (Q1) | (Q3) |  |  (S1)  |(S3)|
|      |      |  |        |    |
+------+------+  |        |    |
|      |      |  +--------+----+
| (Q2) | (Q4) |  |  (S2)  |(S4)|
+------+------+  +--------+----+

… and also a live screenshots.

aero.800.1a

aero.800.1b

Now you have about 95% variations of needed windows places in the keyboard shortcuts.

There are also several complementary addons like making the window centered on the screen but without making it cover the whole screen. As I already use other originated from Windows [ALT] + [ESC] shortcut to send the current windows to the ‘back’ I also added [WIN] + [ESC] for this feature.

(C) [WIN] + [ESC] – place current window centered on screen covering about 2/3 of its space.

As it was relatively easy and fast I also added fullscreen option.

(F) [CTRL] + [ALT] + [F] – make current window go fullscreen

+-------------+  +-------------+
|             |  | +---------+ |
|             |  | |         | |
|     (F)     |  | |   (C)   | |
|             |  | |         | |
|             |  | +---------+ |
+-------------+  +-------------+

… and also a live screenshot.

aero.800.4

Usage

The Aero Snap Extended has the following options.

% aero-snap.sh
usage:

  aero-snap.sh OPTION

OPTION(s):

  L - place window on left  half of screen
  R - place window on right half of screen
  T - place window on upper half of screen
  B - place window on lower half of screen

  SHIFT-L - place window on left  half of screen taking 2/3 space
  SHIFT-R - place window on right half of screen taking 1/3 space
  SHIFT-T - place window on upper half of screen taking 2/3 space
  SHIFT-B - place window on lower half of screen taking 1/3 space

  TL - place window to left/upper  part of screen
  TR - place window to left/lower  part of screen
  BL - place window to right/upper part of screen
  BR - place window to right/lower part of screen

  SHIFT-TL - use left/upper  part with 2/3 of H. and 2/3 V. space
  SHIFT-TR - use left/lower  part with 2/3 of H. and 1/3 V. space
  SHIFT-BL - use right/upper part with 1/3 of H. and 2/3 V. space
  SHIFT-BR - use right/lower part with 1/3 of H. and 1/3 V. space

  C - center window covering about 2/3 of screen
  F - make current window go fullscreen
  Q - remove fullscreen property from window

The Aero Snap Extended can be downloaded from here – aero-snap.sh – the usual place for my scripts.

Openbox Integration

Because of WordPress limitation I will not post Openbox configuration here but You will also find a link to that content in the text form below.

openbox-config

Here is this configuration in text form – rc.xml.openbox.aero.config – from the same location.

More then a year after I implemented this way of tiling on Openbox I found out that its also possible to use that ‘natively’ on Openbox using ‘direct’ Openbox configuration rules.

openbox-native

It definitely should be faster and easier to implement – not to mention that external dependencies will not be available – but a script allows more tuning and flexibility.

Other Window Managers

If you are not into Openbox then you may create these shortcuts using xbindkeys for example.

Future Work

Mine Aero Snap Extended could use some polish and especially testing in the other resolutions the the well tested 1920×1080.

Regards.

EOF

Valuable News – 2018/08/25

UNIX

OpenBSD adds kcov(4) kernel code coverage tracing driver.
So far 8 distinct panics have been found and fixed.
https://marc.info/?l=openbsd-cvs&m=153467896308034&w=2

GCC 8.2 now packaged and available in Illumos/OpenIndiana.
https://bsd.network/@sehnsucht/100581557620270760
https://pkg.openindiana.org/hipster/info/0/developer%2Fgcc-8%408.2.0%2C5.11-2018.0.0.0%3A20180815T204704Z

FreeBSD arc4random is now based on ChaCha20 implementation from OpenBSD.
https://twitter.com/lattera/status/1031280553301925888
https://svnweb.freebsd.org/base?view=revision&revision=338059

Valve forked WINE into Proton as compatibility tool for Steam Play.
https://github.com/ValveSoftware/Proton/
https://steamcommunity.com/games/221410/announcements/detail/1696055855739350561

AMD Threadripper 2990WX 32-core/64-thread on DragonFly BSD.
http://apollo.backplane.com/DFlyMisc/threadripper.txt
http://lists.dragonflybsd.org/pipermail/users/2018-August/357858.html

Using 10GE Adapters with PowerVM SEA – Virtual Ethernet Considerations.
http://ibmsystemsmag.com/aix/administrator/virtualization/using-10gbit-ethernet-adapters/

Native ZFS Encryption on FreeBSD CFT on the road to 12.0-RELEASE.
https://lists.freebsd.org/pipermail/freebsd-current/2018-August/070832.html

Backup FreeNAS and TrueNAS to Backblaze B2 Cloud.
https://www.backblaze.com/blog/how-to-setup-freenas-cloud-storage/

Colin Percival heroic (I am not joking here) fight for removing unneeded sleeps during boot on FreeBSD.
https://twitter.com/cperciva/status/1031928231635677184
https://reviews.freebsd.org/D16723

Writing SYSTEMD service files.
https://twitter.com/mulander/status/1031908074733428736
https://obsd.pl/mfm/iptables/

Illumos/Tribblix packages of openjdk9 and openjdk10 available.
https://twitter.com/ptribble/status/1031650238266789893
https://twitter.com/ptribble/status/1031900360271491074
http://pkgs.tribblix.org/openjdk/

Difference between OpenBSD xenodm and regular xdm.
https://undeadly.org/cgi?action=article&sid=20160911231712

X.Org Security Advisory – 2018/08/21.
http://seclists.org/oss-sec/2018/q3/146

FreeBSD removes legacy DRM and DRM2 from its tree.
https://twitter.com/f0andrey/status/1032234624544583680
https://svnweb.freebsd.org/base?view=revision&revision=338172

OmniOS CE (Community Edition) r151026p/r151024ap/r151022bn with CVE-2018-15473 addressed.
https://omniosce.org/article/releases-026p-024ap-022bn.html

Running Mastodon on FreeBSD.
https://ftfl.ca/blog/2017-05-23-mastodon-freebsd.html

Upgrading Mastodon on FreeBSD.
https://ftfl.ca/blog/2017-05-27-mastodon-freebsd-upgrade.html

KDE Plasma 5.x on Pinebook Laptop.
https://twitter.com/SoftpediaLinux/status/1032262240437723137

FreeBSD – Raspberry Pi 3B+ – UART.
https://blackdot.be/2018/08/freebsd-uart-and-raspberry-pi-3-b/

FreeBSD – Raspberry Pi 3B+ – Remote Access Console.
https://blackdot.be/2018/08/remote-access-console-using-raspberry-pi-3b-and-freebsd/

FreeBSD 12.x has LUA loader enabled by default.
https://twitter.com/bsdimp/status/1031638933690441728

In Other BSDs for 2018/08/18.
https://www.dragonflydigest.com/2018/08/18/21609.html

Shared library load order randomization in HardenedBSD for use with Firefox/Chromium/Iridium.
https://twitter.com/lattera/status/1030823681843507202

Researchers Blame ‘Monolithic’ Linux Code Base for Critical Vulnerabilities.
https://threatpost.com/researchers-blame-monolithic-linux-code-base-for-critical-vulnerabilities/136785/

2018/08/23 is the End of Life for NetBSD 6.x tree.
https://www.netbsd.org/changes/#netbsd6eol

Carlos Neira ZCAGE is now able to create BHYVE Branded Zones on Illumos.
https://bsd.network/@sehnsucht/100599247272911030
https://www.npmjs.com/package/zcage
https://asciinema.org/a/QLnjO8J2NVVPQrs3jh0EKEGta

FreeNAS 11.1-U6 Available.
https://twitter.com/FreeBSD_News/status/1032666675194167297
https://www.ixsystems.com/blog/library/freenas-11-1-u6/

FreeBSD vs. DragonFly BSD vs. Linux on AMD Threadripper 2990WX.
https://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=article&item=bsd-threadripper-2990wx

Disable SMT/Hyperthreading in all Intel BIOSes – Theo de Raadt.
https://marc.info/?l=openbsd-tech&m=153504937925732&w=2

OpenSSH 7.8 Released.
https://www.openssh.com/releasenotes.html#7.8

TRIM Consolidation on UFS/FFS Filesystems on FreeBSD.
https://lists.freebsd.org/pipermail/freebsd-current/2018-August/070797.html

FreeBSD vt(4) will now cache most recently drawn text to not redraw it.
https://reviews.freebsd.org/D16723

What is New in Solaris 11.4?
https://www.oracle.com/a/ocom/docs/dc/sev100738019-ww-us-on-ce1-ie1a-ev.html

OpenBSD Foundation gets first 2018 Iridium ($100K+) donation.
https://undeadly.org/cgi?action=article;sid=20180824145543

How to Run a More Secure Browser.
https://www.dragonflybsd.org/docs/docs/handbook/RunSecureBrowser/

Hardware

IBM POWER9 E950 and E980 Servers Launched.
https://www.servethehome.com/ibm-power9-e950-and-e980-servers-launched/

Intel Microcode EULA Prohibits Benchmarking!
https://twitter.com/RaptorEng/status/1031919319909892096
https://pastebin.com/raw/J8MXpPdh

GIGABYTE Cavium ThunderX2 1U and 2U Systems.
https://www.anandtech.com/show/13234/gigabyte-starts-sales-of-cavium-thunderx2-to-general-customers

Fujitsu Presents Post-K arm64 A64FXβ„’ CPU CPU Specifications with 48 Computing Cores and 4 Assistant Cores.
http://www.fujitsu.com/global/about/resources/news/press-releases/2018/0822-02.html

A4000TX ATX Motherboard.
http://www.amibay.com/showthread.php?101477-A4000TX-ATX-Amiga-motherboard

IBM POWER9 Scale Up CPUs with Huge IO and Effective 32 Channel DDR4.
https://www.servethehome.com/ibm-power9-hc30/

Life

Why We Sleep by Matthew Walker review – how more sleep can save your life.
https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/sep/21/why-we-sleep-by-matthew-walker-review
https://youtube.be/pwaWilO_Pig

Bullshit jobs and the yoke of managerial feudalism.
https://www.economist.com/open-future/2018/06/29/bullshit-jobs-and-the-yoke-of-managerial-feudalism

Why Garbagemen Should Earn More Than Bankers.
https://evonomics.com/why-garbage-men-should-earn-more-than-bankers/

Solitude.
https://www.pa-mar.net/Lifestyle/Solitude.html

Akrasia Effect – Why We Dont Follow Through on What We Set Out to Do and What to Do About It.
https://jamesclear.com/akrasia

Other

Move/migrate Oracle and MySQL databases to PostgreSQL.
http://www.ora2pg.com/start.html
https://github.com/darold/ora2pg/releases

LIDL Killed SAP Migration After Spending 500 Million Dollars.
https://it.toolbox.com/blogs/clintonjones/lidl-cans-sap-project-after-spending-half-a-billion-073118

All BlackHat 2018 Attendee Registration Data Hacked and Available via Unauthenticated API.
https://ninja.style/post/bcard/
https://twitter.com/binitamshah/status/1032084847345459204

GOG Launches FCKDRM to Promote DRM-Free Art and Media.
https://torrentfreak.com/gog-launches-fckdrm-to-promote-drm-free-art-and-media-180822/

EOF