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Quare FreeBSD?

I really wanted to make this article short … but I failed miserably. At least I tried to organize it well so one may get back to it after ‘some’ reading because its not a short lecture. I wanted to title it Why FreeBSD? but when you type that into your favorite duck.com search engine there are so many similar articles. I wanted it to have distinguished and unique name so I used Latin word for ‘why‘ which is ‘quare‘.


What FreeBSD can offer you that other operating systems does not? From all of the operating systems I used I find FreeBSD to suck the least. This post is not here to convince you to use or try FreeBSD – this you will have to do by yourself. This article will show you why FreeBSD is valuable or better alternative to other operating systems and is definitely not dying.

This is the Table of Contents for this article.

  • Base System
  • ZFS Boot Environments
  • Rescue
  • Audio
  • Jails
  • FreeBSD Ports Infrastructure
  • Updating/Building from Source
  • Storage
  • Init System
  • Linux Binary Compatibility
  • Simplicity
  • Evolution Instead Rewriting
  • Documentation
  • Community
  • Closing Thoughts

Base System

When you install a Linux system its just a bunch of RPM or DEB packages. For example of you install CentOS 7.8 Minimal variant you end up with several hundred RPM packages installed. After a week or month many of these packages will get updates sometimes making this CentOS system unusable or even unbootable (recent GRUB Boothole problem for example). On the contrary FreeBSD comes with a Base System concept. This means that when you install FreeBSD you install a minimal system as a whole. No packages or subsystems to be separately updated. Just whole Base System. That means that /boot /bin /sbin /usr /etc /lib /libexec /rescue directories are untouchable by any packages. When you decide to install packages (or build them using FreeBSD Ports) they will all fall into the /usr/local prefix. That means /usr/local/etc for configuration. The /usr/local/bin and /usr/local/sbin directories for binaries. The /usr/local/lib and /usr/local/libexec for libraries and so on. The FreeBSD Base System kernel modules are kept in the same dir along with the kernel in the /boot/kernel directory. To make things tidy all kernel modules that are provided by packages go into the /boot/modules dir. Everything has its place and its separated.

That is separation between Base System binaries (at /bin /sbin /usr/bin /usr/sbin dirs) and Third Party Packages maintained by pkg(8) and are located at /usr/local/bin and /usr/local/sbin dirs. We all know differences between bin (user) and sbin (root) binaries but in FreeBSD there is also another more UFS related separation. When there was only UFS filesystem in the FreeBSD world the /bin and /sbin binaries were available at boot after the root (/) filesystem was mounted and yet before /usrย  filesystem was mounted – this is historical (and still useful in the UFS setups) distinction dating to old UNIX days. In ZFS setups it does not matter as all files are on ZFS pool anyway.

The FreeBSD Base System separation also helps with another thing – if any package gets the ‘great’ idea to install new compiler named cc and override the default system compiler … or to add libraries/includes in such a way that makes it super hard to get back into a working system. If some random FreeBSD package would add libc.so to /usr/local/lib dir then you are covered and not prevented from running programs as usual because FreeBSD system binaries are linked to stuff in /usr/lib dir. This is why there is PATH variable on UNIX systems (and FreeBSD as well) to set which directories should be searched for binaries first. On FreeBSD by default its set search Base System binaries dirs first and then Third Party Packages later.

You can update (or not) the Base System separately from the installed packages with freebsd-update(8) command when using RELEASE or by recompiling with make buildworld and make installworld commands when using STABLE/CURRENT systems. When it comes to packages you can update them using the pkg(8) tool or portmaster when building from FreeBSD Ports tree under /usr/ports dir. That means that any packages updates will not touch your FreeBSD Base System at all. For example when you mess up (and I have done that in the beginning of my FreeBSD journey) the compiled ports and packages and you want to start over the only thing you have to do is remove /usr/local and /boot/modules and /var/db/pkg directories. That’s it. You are just reverted to your Base System and can start over. This is just not possible when using Linux system. Even with Gentoo that many concepts are based on FreeBSD ideas does not have Base System feature. This Base System also have additional feature. Because its separated from packages version no one stops you from running oldshool FreeBSD 9.0 from 2012 and install there latest Firefox 80 or LibreOffice 7.0. You can not install latest Firefox on Ubuntu from 2012 …

One may be ‘afraid’ that such Base System independent from installed packages would take more space but nothing far more from the truth. The fresh installed FreeBSD 12.1 system uses less then 1 GB of disk space and takes less then 75 MB of RAM with sshd(8) running. For the comparison fresh CentOS 7.8 install with ‘Minimal’ set chosen takes 1.1 GB of disk space and uses more then 100 MB RAM with sshd(8) running. Such CentOS system is really naked and really needs more packages to be usable while FreeBSD with its Base System is far more capable and powerful and comes along with builtin latest version of LLVM/CLANG compiler suite for example.

More on the Base System topic:

ZFS Boot Environments

I have talked about this many times and probably one time too less because Linux world still ignores this bless. Having ZFS Boot Environments its such a game changer that once you realize how powerful it is you will never want to use a system that does not support it. The idea is that you can snapshot a running system at any moment of time and then reboot into that moment (or snapshot) if something happened. Its perfect solution for upgrade or changes to the system. The FreeBSD systems are already well ‘protected’ from problems arising after updating the packages but ZFS Boot Environments takes this to a whole new level.


Like in the movie Groundhog Day (1993) with ZFS Boot Environments you will have limitless chances to get your shit toghether. Even the Base System updates and changes are protected by it. You can even transport that Boot Environment by using zfs send and zfs recv commands to other system … or propagate it on many systems. You can create Jails containers from it … or install new version of FreeBSD in the new Boot Environment and reboot into it while still having your older ‘production’ system untouched.

More on the ZFS Boot Environments topic:


When you really mess up to the point that even Base System concept or ZFS Boot Environments feature did not stopped you from killing your FreeBSD installation then there is one more level of rescue … the Rescue subsystem.


You have about 150 statically linked binaries available at your disposal for the rescue mission of that FreeBSD installation. You probably think now that if its so many binaries then it probably takes a lot of space … nothing far more from the truth. Its actually one static binary with hardlinks … and it takes whooping 11 MB of disk space.

# ls -lh /rescue | head -5
total 1118446
-r-xr-xr-x  146 root  wheel    11M 2020.02.19 21:10 [
-r-xr-xr-x  146 root  wheel    11M 2020.02.19 21:10 bectl
-r-xr-xr-x  146 root  wheel    11M 2020.02.19 21:10 bsdlabel
-r-xr-xr-x  146 root  wheel    11M 2020.02.19 21:10 bunzip2

They Rescue subsystem even contains such binaries as bectl(8) for ZFS Boot Environments management or zfs(8) and zpool(8) commands for the ZFS filesystem. Here is complete list of these binaries.

# ls /rescue
[           dd               fsck_ffs      init       mdmfs          ping      rtsol        unlink
bectl       devfs            fsck_msdosfs  ipf        mkdir          ping6     savecore     unlzma
bsdlabel    df               fsck_ufs      iscsictl   mknod          pkill     sed          unxz
bunzip2     dhclient         fsdb          iscsid     more           poweroff  setfacl      unzstd
bzcat       dhclient-script  fsirand       kenv       mount          ps        sh           vi
bzip2       disklabel        gbde          kill       mount_cd9660   pwd       shutdown     whoami
camcontrol  dmesg            geom          kldconfig  mount_msdosfs  rcorder   sleep        xz
cat         dump             getfacl       kldload    mount_nfs      rdump     spppcontrol  xzcat
ccdconfig   dumpfs           glabel        kldstat    mount_nullfs   realpath  stty         zcat
chflags     dumpon           gpart         kldunload  mount_udf      reboot    swapon       zdb
chgrp       echo             groups        ldconfig   mount_unionfs  red       sync         zfs
chio        ed               gunzip        less       mt             rescue    sysctl       zpool
chmod       ex               gzcat         link       mv             restore   tail         zstd
chown       expr             gzip          ln         nc             rm        tar          zstdcat
chroot      fastboot         halt          ls         newfs          rmdir     tcsh         zstdmt
clri        fasthalt         head          lzcat      newfs_msdos    route     tee          
cp          fdisk            hostname      lzma       nextboot       routed    test         
csh         fsck             id            md5        nos-tun        rrestore  tunefs       
date        fsck_4.2bsd      ifconfig      mdconfig   pgrep          rtquery   umount   

More on the Rescue topic:


Not many people expect from FreeBSD to shine in that department but it shines a lot here and not from yesterday but from decades. Remember when Linux got rid of the old OSS subsystem with one channel and came up with ‘great’ idea to write ALSA? I remember because I used Linux back then. Disaster is very polite word to describe Linux audio stack back then … and then PulseAudio came and whole Linux audio system got much worse. Back then because of that one OSS channel and many ALSA channels meant that ONLY ONE application with OSS backend could do the sound (for example WINE). But if another application would want to ‘make’ sound using OSS and you already have WINE started then it will be soundless because that one and only OSS channel was already taken. And remember that ALSA was so bad back then that KDE or GNOME made their own sound daemons mixing audio in userspace that were incompatible with each other. That means if you used KDE and GNOME apps back then you could have sound from GNOME apps but not from KDE apps or vice versa. One big fucking audio hell on Linux.


Lets get back to FreeBSD audio then. What FreeBSD offered? A whooping 256 OSS channels mixed live in kernel for low latency. Everything audio related just worked out of the box – and still works today. You could have WINE or KDE/GNOME sound backends attached to their OSS channels and also ALSA apps getting their sound device without a problem. Even when you plugged a 5.1 surround system into FreeBSD it worked out of the box without any configuration and applications were able to use it immediately. That FreeBSD audio supremacy remains today as PulseAudio sound mixing in userspace while generally working incorporates large latency on Liunx compared to in kernel FreeBSD mixing with low latency.

Comrade meka suggested that FreeBSD is also the only OS which has virtual_oss that allows mixing/resampling/compressing in user space and allows one to have Bluetooth headphones and USB microphone represented as single sound card.

More on the Audio topic:


The FreeBSD Jails are one of the oldest OS Level Virtualization implementations dating back to 1999. Even the Solaris Zones/Containers came five years later in 2004.


After Docker was introduced in Linux the term OS Level Virtualization became less used to the Containers term and now the FreeBSD Jails along with Solaris Zones/Containers are named 1st generation containers. But that naming nomenclature change does not make FreeBSD Jails less powerful. They are also really brain dead simple to use. You just need a directory – for example /jail/nextcloud – where you will extract the FreeBSD Base System for desired release version – for example base.txz from 12.1-RELEASE and create the Jail config in the /etc/jail.conf file as shown below.

# mkdir -p /jail/nextcloud
# fetch -o - http://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/amd64/12.1-RELEASE/base.txz | tar --unlink -xpJf - -C /jail/nextcloud
# cat /etc/jail.conf
nextcloud {
  host.hostname = nextcloud.local;
  ip4.addr =;
  path = /jail/nextcloud;

Now you can start you Jail right away.

# service jail onestart nextcloud
Starting jails: nextcloud.

Voila! Your FreeBSD Jail is already running.

# jls
   JID  IP Address      Hostname                      Path
     1      nextcloud.local               /jail/nextcloud

You can of course have a trimmed down version of FreeBSD Base System in the Jail if that is needed. The ZFS filesystem also helps here greatly because with zfs clone only your ‘base’ Jail will take space and only the changes you make to Jails created from it. Thanks to other FreeBSD subsystem – the Linux Binary Compatibility – you can also create a Linux Jail – for example running Devuan Jail.

The FreeBSD Jails are also very lightweight. You can boot and use about 1000 FreeBSD Jails on a single FreeBSD system with 4 GB RAM.

They are also very easy to debug and troubleshoot comparing even to plain Docker – not to even mention Kubernetes which requires whole team of highly skilled people to maintain.

The FreeBSD Jails may be configured/managed only by the Base System utilities such as jls(8)/jexec(8) but you can also select from many third party Jail management frameworks. From all available ones I would choose BastilleBSD because of their modern approach and many ready to use templates for all needed use cases.

More on the Jails topic:

FreeBSD Ports Infrastructure

This is one of another examples why FreeBSD rocks that much. When you install Ubuntu or CentOS in some version there is chance that you will end up with not latest versions of packages but with versions that were quite up-to-date when this distribution version was released. Its especially visible in the CentOS world (and its upstream enterprise source system from Red Hat) where packages are quite up-to-date when .0 (dot zero) release is published but are VERY outdated when .8 or .9 incarnation of that release is available. Not to even mention that Firefox for example is released every month …


As I said before when describing the FreeBSD Base System the FreeBSD Ports (and packages built from it available through pkg(8)) are independent. That means that third party software from FreeBSD Ports is almost always up-to-date (or very close to it). You can even check it on the repology.org site for the details. Below you will find a ‘snapshot’ of the repology.org stats from time of writing this article. The ‘online’ table is very long so I copy/pasted just the systems relevant to the article.


One of the other advantages of FreeBSD Ports is that it offers really MASSIVE amount of software counting 40354 ports when writing this article and still rising. Amount of ready to be installed packages are little smaller with more then 32000 available.

I once migrated for a while to OpenSolaris in 2009 on my Dell Latitude D630 laptop because I really liked all the Solaris features (including ZFS and ZFS Boot Environments that were not available on FreeBSD back then) and the OpenSolaris GNOME based desktop was pretty nice back then even with Time Slider feature for ZFS snapshots in the Nautilus file manager. I got working WiFi connection, sound was working, generally everything on my laptop was supported and working with OpenSolaris … but there was no software. Of course ‘large’ projects like GIMP or OpenOffice was available even in the default pkg(8) repository but not much else. There was less then 4000 packages back then on OpenSolaris while about 25000 packages on FreeBSD if I recall correctly.

You can also easily browse available FreeBSD Ports (and its options) on the web by using the https://freshports.org/ page.


The count of FreeBSD Ports is one thing, the features is another. No matter which Linux distribution you are using you will find a software that was compiled and shipped without that needed flag that you desperately need. If you find such software on FreeBSD it ‘hurts’ only for a moment because you can VERY EASILY recompile that software with needed options and replace that ‘default’ package with yours. For example the FreeBSD project is afraid to provide packages of Lame because of existing MP3 patents, so multimedia/ffmpeg package is built without MP3 support (with --disable-libmp3lame flag). That is why I have my own audio/lame and multimedia/ffmpeg packages built with my configure options and that is very easy to achieve. You need to go to the /usr/ports/multimedia/ffmpeg dir type make config and select [x] LAME at the ncurses dialog. Your chosen options will be saved as plain /var/db/ports/multimedia_ffmpeg/options file. If you remove that file (or type make rmconfig) then these custom options will reset to defaults. Then you type make build deinstall install clean and your port with new options is ready and installed as package. Nothing more is needed. You can even lock that package from the pkg(8) upgrades with pkg lock -y ffmpeg command so it will not be modified later but its better to rebuild such packages everytime you do a pkg upgrade procedure because of libraries versions bump and changes. While its very easy and fast to create a script with these commands to make it more automated you can also use other parts of the FreeBSD Ports infrastructure – enter Poudriere (or Synth) – more on that in the next part.

You also do not have to configure each port that way (which could be PITA for large amount of ports) but you may specify your needed (OPTIONS_SET) or unwanted (OPTIONS_UNSET) parameters only once globally using the /etc/make.conf file. You can also specify which default versions of software you want to use, for example Apache 2.2 instead of 2.4 and PHP 7.0 instead of 7.2. You can find all default versions in the /usr/ports/Mk/bsd.default-versions.mk file. Once you setup these options you can build/rebuild or update your packages from FreeBSD Ports by portmaster(8) tool. Like on Gentoo Linux with USE flags. But this is the original. Gentoo took all/most of its ideas from FreeBSD system and its Ports infrastructure.

The Poudriere is a build framework that uses FreeBSD Ports and FreeBSD Jails to build requested packages in clean reproducible way. You can create whole new binary package repository for pkg(8) command to use with it. I mentioned Synth because while Poudriere is often used to produce whole package repository the Synth is usually used just to rebuild several packages that does not fit your needs.

There is one important things about FreeBSD Ports that is often misunderstood by newcomers. What is the difference between the Ports and packages that are fetched and installed by pkg(8) tool? Its quite simple. A package is just a build and installed port. Nothing more or less. When you use the binary packages using pkg(8) command you are using packages that someone (the FreeBSD project in that case) built for you from the FreeBSD Ports in some point in time. While FreeBSD strives to maintain as up-to-date built packages as possible its the nature of FreeBSD Ports that they are always more up-to-date then the built packages. That is why you may build and install a new version of needed packages by yourself using FreeBSD Ports. One may think of such usage when it comes to security holes. When some locally executed commands (like file(1) for example) has a security hole then its not critical for you to update it as fast as possible because that security hole can be harmless for you, but when new version of Firefox fixes very important security hole then its better to update from FreeBSD Ports version faster because waiting 2 days for the package to be built (along with other packages) can be too long.

More on the FreeBSD Ports topic:

Updating/Building from Source

While the FreeBSD Ports infrastructure is for third party software the FreeBSD Base System (or its parts) also can be easily and convenient build from source. The FreeBSD kernel config is also very small and simple. While Linux kernel config contains thousands of options – 4432 for example in the default CentOS 8.2 install the FreeBSD GENERIC config has about 20 times options less – only 260 options. But that does not saturate the topic. You can start with MINIMAL FreeBSD kernel config which has only 75 options specified.

Linux # grep -c '^CONFIG' /boot/config-$( uname -r )

FreeBSD # grep -c -E '^(device|options)' /usr/src/sys/amd64/conf/GENERIC

FreeBSD # grep -c -E '^(device|options)' /usr/src/sys/amd64/conf/MINIMAL

… and its not only about smaller amount of options. Can you tell my how many steps (and which ones are required) to rebuild CentOS or Ubuntu for example without Bluetooth support?


On the contrary its very simple (and fast) on the FreeBSD side. While /etc/make.conf file is used to enable/disable Ports options the /etc/src.conf file is used to enable/disable FreeBSD Base System options while building it from source. To build FreeBSD without Bluetooth support just add WITHOUT_BLUETOOTH=yes to the /etc/src.conf file and type these to build it:

# beadm create safe
# cd /usr/src
# make buildworld kernel
# reboot
# cd /usr/src
# make installworld
# mergemaster -iU
# reboot

Voila! You now have FreeBSD without Bluetooth support … and if any of the steps failed or because of your lack of experience/expertise your FreeBSD system does not boot or is broken you can use tools from /rescue to try to fix it (or at least figure out what is broken) and when you do not want to cope with this jest select safe ZFS Boot Environment at the FreeBSD loader(8) to boot to the system before you started building modified version of FreeBSD. Yes, You are bulletproof here. While having 294 WITHOUT_X options and 125 WITH_X options you can really tune FreeBSD Base System to your needs.

# zgrep -c WITHOUT_ /usr/share/man/man5/src.conf.5.gz

# zgrep -c WITH_ /usr/share/man/man5/src.conf.5.gz

The big downside of updating FreeBSD by source is that you can not use the freebsd-update tools to do it … but nothing stops you from creating your own FreeBSD Update Server so you will be able to use freebsd-update by adding updates using a CURRENT or STABLE system instead of RELEASE. That process is described in the Build Your Own FreeBSD Update Server article of official FreeBSD documentation.

More on the FreeBSD Source Updates/Builds topic:


Storage is one of the parts where FreeBSD really shines. Lots of people adore FreeBSD for well integrated ZFS filesystem and its really true. ZFS in FreeBSD has always been first class citizen. Lately OpenZFS 2.0 has been also integrated from the upstream joint FreeBSD and Linux repository. More and more FreeBSD features and solutions are using ZFS features.


Most of these people that like integrated ZFS in FreeBSD do not know about the FreeBSD GEOM modular disk transformation framework which provides various storage related features and utilities like software RAID0/RAID1/RAID10/RAID3/RAID5 configurations or transparent encryption of underlying devices with GELI/GDBE (like LUKS on Linux). It also allows transparent filesystem journaling for ANY filesystem with GJOURNAL (yes also for FAT32 or exFAT) or allows one to export block devices over network with GEOM GATE devices (like NFS for block devices).


FreeBSD also has its own FUSE implementation which allows all these FUSE based filesystems to work natively on FreeBSD. While lots of Linux folks know DRBD probably very few of them knew that FreeBSD comes with its own DRBD like solution called HAST – which does exactly the same thing. While ZFS has a lot features and possibilities FreeBSD still maintains and develops fast and small memory footprint UFS filesystem which today is used either with Soft Updates (SU) or Journaled Soft Updates (SUJ) depending on the use case. For example 10 TB data on UFS filesystem with Journaled Soft Updates (SUJ) takes about 1 minute under fsck(8). These storage solutions are available from FreeBSD Base System alone. The FreeBSD Ports offers much more with distributed filesystems solutions such as CEPH, LeoFS, LizardFS or Minio for Amazon S3 compatible storage.

More on the Storage topic:

Init System

FreeBSD offers really simple yet very powerful init system. It has system wide config under /etc/rc.conf file when you can enable/disable needed services with service_enable=YES and service_enable=NO stanzas. You do not even need to launch vi(1) to add them – just type sysrc service_enable=YES and they are added to the /etc/rc.conf file. There are also default values and services that are enabled and you will find them – along with many comments – in the /etc/defaults/rc.conf file. Each FreeBSD service file has PROVIDE/REQUIRE stanzas which are then used to automatically order the services to start. Services that can be run in parallel are started in parallel to save time. For example its pointless to start sshd(8) daemon without network. To start or stop the serivice you need to type service sshd start or service sshd stop command. But when a service is not enabled in the /etc/rc.conf file then you need to used add onestart and onestop instead. The Base System separation remains here as FreeBSD Base System services are located at /etc/rc.d directory and third party applications from ports/packages are kept under /usr/local prefix which means /usr/local/etc/rc.d dir.

When using systemd(1) you never know how the services gonna start because it will be different each time. Zero determinism. On FreeBSD you know exactly which services will start when because they are always ordered in the same state according to the PROVIDE/REQUIRE stanzas. FreeBSD also offers tools that will tell you the exact order – rcorder(8) – which can be used for all services, Base System services or third party services separately. There is also service -r command that will show you what was the orfer at the boot time.

# rcorder /etc/rc.d/* | head

# rcorder /usr/local/etc/rc.d/* | tail

# rcorder /etc/rc.d/* /usr/local/etc/rc.d/* 2> | grep -C 3 sshd

Adding new service to FreeBSD is also very easy as template for new service is very small and simple.


. /etc/rc.subr



load_rc_config $name
: ${dummy_enable:=no}
: ${dummy_msg="Nothing started."}

	echo "$dummy_msg"

run_rc_command "$1"

If its not simple enought for you there is dedicated FreeBSD article about writing them – Practical rc.d Scripting in BSD – available here.

More on the Init System topic:

Linux Binary Compatibility

While Linux can not be FreeBSD – the FreeBSD can be Linux – and its not some slow emulation – its implementation of Linux system calls. There was time when enterprises used to work with Linux only applications (not available on FreeBSD by then) using the Linux Binary Compatibility on FreeBSD because it was faster then running them natively on Linux – FreeBSD Used to Generate Spectacular Special Effects – an official FreeBSD Press Release about FreeBSD being used to generate spacial effects to the one of the best movies of all time – The Matrix (1999).


Today the LINUX_COMPAT is also natively fast and allows one to run Linux applications – even Linux games in X11 with hardware acceleration for graphics. Think of it as WINE but for Linux applications. It lives under /compat/linux directory. It even implements Linux /proc virtual filesystem which can be mounted at the /compat/linux/proc dir but its not mandatory. For any software that does not come with source code and works on Linux the Linux Binary Compatibility saves the day. For example the f.lux project. Before I got to know Redshift I used f.lux Linux binary using LINUX_COMPAT to suppress blue spectrum light from my FreeBSD screen. The Linux Binary Compatibility subsystem can also be used to run Linux bases FreeBSD Jails – with Devuan for example.

More on the Linux Binary Compatibility topic:


FreeBSD is simple but not coarse/ornery. For example as Linux the FreeBSD system also supports the /proc virtual filesystem but on FreeBSD its optional and not used by default while Linux could not live without it. But while Linux has mandatory /proc it also has another virtual filesystem residing under /sys … but why Linux people need two different virtual filesystems with similar purposes? Why they could not create everything under /proc as it already existed. That is big enigma for my sanity.

But /sys is not the end of that madness. Its just a beginning.

What about these?

  • securityfs
  • devpts
  • cgroup
  • pstore
  • bpf
  • configfs
  • selinuxfs
  • systemd-1
  • mqueue
  • debugfs
  • hugetlbfs

Take a look at the FreeBSD mount(8) output after the default install on ZFS.

FreeBSD # mount
zroot/ROOT/12.1 on / (zfs, local, noatime, nfsv4acls)
devfs on /dev (devfs, local, multilabel)
zroot/tmp on /tmp (zfs, local, noatime, nosuid, nfsv4acls)
zroot/var/mail on /var/mail (zfs, local, nfsv4acls)
zroot/usr/home on /usr/home (zfs, local, noatime, nfsv4acls)
zroot/var/crash on /var/crash (zfs, local, noatime, noexec, nosuid, nfsv4acls)
zroot/var/log on /var/log (zfs, local, noatime, noexec, nosuid, nfsv4acls)
zroot/var/audit on /var/audit (zfs, local, noatime, noexec, nosuid, nfsv4acls)
zroot/var/tmp on /var/tmp (zfs, local, noatime, nosuid, nfsv4acls)
zroot/usr/src on /usr/src (zfs, local, noatime, nfsv4acls)
zroot/usr/ports on /usr/ports (zfs, local, noatime, nosuid, nfsv4acls)

Several ZFS datasets and one virtual devfs filesystem for /dev directory. With install on UFS it would be similar with several UFS partitions mounted instead of ZFS datasets.

Take a look at the CentOS 8.2 installation with just one physical root (/) XFS filesystem.

[root@centos8 ~]# mount
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel)
proc on /proc type proc (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)
devtmpfs on /dev type devtmpfs (rw,nosuid,seclabel,size=919388k,nr_inodes=229847,mode=755)
securityfs on /sys/kernel/security type securityfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)
tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,seclabel)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,nosuid,noexec,relatime,seclabel,gid=5,mode=620,ptmxmode=000)
tmpfs on /run type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,seclabel,mode=755)
tmpfs on /sys/fs/cgroup type tmpfs (ro,nosuid,nodev,noexec,seclabel,mode=755)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/systemd type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel,xattr,release_agent=/usr/lib/systemd/systemd-cgroups-agent,name=systemd)
pstore on /sys/fs/pstore type pstore (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel)
bpf on /sys/fs/bpf type bpf (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,mode=700)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/cpuset type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel,cpuset)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/memory type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel,memory)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/blkio type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel,blkio)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/hugetlb type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel,hugetlb)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/net_cls,net_prio type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel,net_cls,net_prio)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/cpu,cpuacct type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel,cpu,cpuacct)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/freezer type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel,freezer)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/perf_event type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel,perf_event)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/rdma type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel,rdma)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/pids type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel,pids)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/devices type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel,devices)
configfs on /sys/kernel/config type configfs (rw,relatime)
/dev/sda1 on / type xfs (rw,relatime,seclabel,attr2,inode64,noquota)
selinuxfs on /sys/fs/selinux type selinuxfs (rw,relatime)
systemd-1 on /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc type autofs (rw,relatime,fd=34,pgrp=1,timeout=0,minproto=5,maxproto=5,direct,pipe_ino=17309)
mqueue on /dev/mqueue type mqueue (rw,relatime,seclabel)
debugfs on /sys/kernel/debug type debugfs (rw,relatime,seclabel)
hugetlbfs on /dev/hugepages type hugetlbfs (rw,relatime,seclabel,pagesize=2M)
tmpfs on /run/user/0 type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,seclabel,size=187088k,mode=700)

Fuck me. Its even really hard to just find any REAL filesystem there … fortunately we can ask for only XFS filesystems to display.

[root@centos8 ~]# mount -t xfs
/dev/sda1 on / type xfs (rw,relatime,seclabel,attr2,inode64,noquota)

Lets get on the networking now. Lets assume that you want to make standard enterprise networking setup on a physical server with two interfaces aggregated together into highly available interface bond0 (lagg0 on FreeBSD) and then you want to put VLAN tag and IP address on that VLAN. The CentOS 7.x/8.x installer (Anaconda) will welcome you with this mess.

[root@centos7 ~]# ls -1 /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-*

[root@centos7 ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-Bond_connection_1
BONDING_OPTS="miimon=1 updelay=0 downdelay=0 mode=active-backup"
NAME="Bond connection 1"

[root@centos7 ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eno49

[root@centos7 ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eno49-1

[root@centos7 ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eno50

[root@centos7 ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eno50-1

[root@centos7 ~]# cat/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-VLAN_connection_1
NAME="VLAN connection 1"

For the record – I have choosen ‘STATIC’ IPv4 address but installer made these interfaces to use DHCP and that STATIC address. That could be a bug but lets get to the point.

After manual fixing with vi(1) (and hour later) this is how it supposed to look.

[root@centos7 ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network

[root@centos7 ~]# ls -1 /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-*

[root@centos7 ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0
BONDING_OPTS="miimon=1 updelay=0 downdelay=0 mode=active-backup"

[root@centos7 ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0.601

[root@centos7 ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eno49

[root@centos7 ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eno50

Better … but still takes A LOT OF SPACE and several files to cover that quite simple setup. Not to mention its level of complication and making that very error prone way. The same configuration on FreeBSD would take just 7 lines within single /etc/rc.conf file as shown below.

ifconfig_lagg0="laggproto failover laggport fxp0 laggport fxp1"

What about the boot process? FreeBSD boots from root on ZFS partition with just small 512 KB not mountable partition. No separate /boot device is needed. On the other side Linux always needs that separate /boot partition filled with GRUB modules. No matter if its ZFS or LVM. That is why implementation of ZFS Boot Environments is quite complicated on Linux bacause even if you have root on ZFS on a Linux system there is still unprotected /boot filesystem that can not be snapshoted with ZFS and has to be protected in old classic way which kill the idea of ZFS Boot Environments or Linux.

FreeBSD is really simple and well thought operating system. But also a very underestimated one.

Evolution Instead Rewriting

How many Linux tools or subsystems are abandoned or superseeded by new ones? Why the ifconfig(8) command was not updated with new options and instead a new ip(8) command was introduced? Same with netstat(8) being replaced by ss(8). Same with arp(8)/iwconfig/route(8) and many more. What about whole init system? The Linux world has been taken over by systemd(1) whenever you like it or not. Even distributions that have grown their mature init systems like Ubuntu with its Upstart has moved to systemd(1) altogether. The distributions that do not use it are very few and considered a niche today.


In the FreeBSD land on the countary such things happen only if there is no other way to implement new things. Its the last thing wanted in the FreeBSD. FreeBSD evolves and is developed with stability and backward compatibility in mind. Userland tools are grown and updated with new options instead of rewriting them over and over again. Not to mention how many new bugs are introduced by changing one tool to another.

More on the Evolution Instead Rewriting topic:


Having system that can do almost anything but not knowing how to do that makes that system pretty useless (or at least pretty PITA to use). FreeBSD offers second to none documentation that is actively maintained and updated. Along with its legendary FreeBSD Handbook and FreeBSD FAQ the FreeBSD project also offers official FreeBSD Articles about various FreeBSD topics. The Man Pages are also very detailed and contain many examples. There is also FreeBSD Wiki page for work in progress documentation and ideas related to FreeBSD development and if you have any problems or questions related to FreeBSD there are official FreeBSD Forums and oldschool Mailing Lists available.


These were only the official project knowledge sources but there are also lots of FreeBSD books. Here are the best and up-to-date ones.

  • Absolute FreeBSD – Complete Guide to FreeBSD – 3nd Edition (2019)
  • Beginning Modern Unix (2018)
  • Book of PF – 3rd Edition (2015)
  • Design and Implementation of FreeBSD 11 Operating System – 2nd Edition (2015)
  • FreeBSD Device Drivers (2012)
  • FreeBSD Mastery – ZFS (2015)
  • FreeBSD Mastery – Advanced ZFS (2016)
  • FreeBSD Mastery – Storage Essentials (2014)
  • FreeBSD Mastery – Specialty Filesystems (2015)
  • FreeBSD Mastery – Jails (2019)

There are also two magazines that are dedicated to BSD and FreeBSD systems. Both are free and cover lots of interesting topics regarding FreeBSD.

With all this knowledge and support its really hard not to achieve what you need/want with FreeBSD system.


Last but not least and I would say its even more important then good documentation (which FreeBSD has awesome). People that use FreeBSD do that conciously and are often experienced not only in FreeBSD land but also in topics related to other UNIX systems. Often they took long road of first using the Linux systems before finally setting on the FreeBSD land or they still do Linux adminitration for a living while resting using far more reasonable and sensible FreeBSD solution. I always find FreeBSD Community helpful and friendly. Always willingly helpful – especially towards newcommers. Even when you try to ‘force’ FreeBSD people to ‘fight’ in unjust/doubtful discussion they will reply with dignity and technical arguments instead of yelling at you.

The FreeBSD project even made several articles and Handbook chapters especially for Linux newcommers (or sometimes called systemd(1) refugees).

Closing Thoughts

I tried really hard to not make it a Linux rant but some may feel it that way – if so please remember that this was not my intention. FreeBSD like Linux and like any other operating system has its ups and downs. Hope that I showed you most interesting FreeBSD parts. I may add new sections here without a warning in the future ๐Ÿ™‚



My FreeBSD Story

As Roman Zolotarev asked if I would write an entry for his Tell Your BSD Story page I could not refuse. I really tried to make it short and small but I guess its not that straight ๐Ÿ™‚

My first devices/computers/consoles (not at the same time) that I remember were Atari 2600 and Pegasus console which was hardware clone of the Nintendo NES.


Back then I did not even knew that it was Atari 2600 as I referred to it as Video Computer System … and I did not even knew any english by then. It took me about two decades to get to know (by accident) that this Video Computer System was Atari 2600 ๐Ÿ™‚

This equipment was used for playing computer games only.

Then I got AMIGA 600 computer (or should I say my parents bought it for me) which served both for playing computer games and also other activities for the first time. AMIGA is the computer that had the greatest influence on me, as it was the first time I studied the books about Amiga Workbench operating system and learned commands from Amiga Shell terminal. I loved the idea of Ram Disk icon/directory on the desktop that allowed me to transparently put any things in system memory. I still miss that concept on today’s desktop systems … and I still remember how dismal I was when I watched Amiga Deathbed Vigil movie.


At the end of 1998 I got my first PC that of course came with Windows and that computer served both as gaming machine and as well as typical tool. One time I dig into the internals with Windows Registry (which left me disgusted by its concepts and implementation) and its limited command line interface provided by CMD.EXE executable. I remember that the heart of this box was not the CPU or the motherboard but the graphics accelerator – the legendary 3Dfx Voodoo card. This company (3Dfx) – their attitude and philosophy – also left solid fingerprint on my way. Like AMIGA did.

Hence how the top of my laptop looks like now ๐Ÿ™‚


Some games was even released as special edition with the only feature being support for the 3Dfx Glide driver like Need for Speed II: Special Edition.


After ‘migration’ from AMIGA to PC it never again ‘felt right’. The games were cool but the Windows system was horrible. Time has passed and different Windows versions and hardware modifications took place. Windows XP felt really heavy at that time, not to mention Windows 2000 for example with even bigger hardware requirements. I also do not understand all the hate about Windows ME. It crashed with the same frequency as Windows 98 or later Windows 98 Second Edition but maybe my hardware was different ๐Ÿ™‚


I do not have any ‘mine’ screenshots from that period as I lost all my 40 GB (huge then) drive of data when I moved/resized the partition with Partition Magic to get some more space from the less filled C: drive. That day I learned hard that “there are people who do backups and people who will do backups”. I never lost data again as I had multiple copies of my data, but the same as Netheril fall the lost data was was gone forever.

I always followed various alternatives which led me to try Linux in 2003, after reading about various distributions philosophies I decided to run Slackware Linux with KDE 3. My buddy used Aurox Linux by then (one of the few Linux distributions from Poland) and encouraged me to do the same – especially in the context of fixing possible problems as he already knew it and also as he recently dumped Windows system. But Slackware sounded like a better idea so I took that path instead. At first I dual booted between Windows XP and Slackware Linux cause I had everything worked out on the Windows world while I often felt helpless in the Linux world, so I would reboot into Windows to play some games or find a solution for Linux problem if that was required. I remember how strange the concept of dual clipboards (PRIMARY and SECONDARY) was for me by then. I was amazed why ‘so much better’ system as Linux (at least marketed that way) needs a system tray program to literally manage the clipboard. On Windows it was obvious, you do [CTRL]+[C] to copy and [CTRL]+[V] to paste things, but on Linux there (no I know its X11 feature) there were two clipboards that were synchronized by this little system tray program from KDE 3. It was also unthinkable for me that I will ‘lost’ contents of last/recent [CTRL]+[C] operation if I close the application from which the copy was made. I settled down a little on Slackware but not for long. I really did not liked manual dependency management for packages for example. Also KDE 3 was really ugly and despite trying all possible options I was not able to tweak it into something nice looking.

After half a year on Slackware I checked the Linux distributions again and decided to try Gentoo Linux. I definitely agree with the image below which visualizes Gentoo Linux experience, especially when You install it for he first time ๐Ÿ™‚


Of course I went with the most hardcore version with self building Stage 1 (compiler and toolchain) which was horrible idea at that time because compilation on slow single core machine took forever … but after many hours I got Gentoo installed. I now have to decide which desktop environment to use. I have read a lot of good news about Fluxbox at that time so this is what I tried. It was very weird experience (to create everything in GUI from scratch) but very pleasant one. That recalled me the times of AMIGA … but Linux came in the way too much often. The more I dig into Gentoo Linux the more I read that lots of Gentoo features are based on FreeBSD solutions. Gentoo Portage is a clone of FreeBSD Ports. That ‘central’ /etc/rc.conf system configuration file concept was taken from FreeBSD as well. So I started to gather information about FreeBSD. The (then) FreeBSD website or FreeBSD Ports site (still) felt little outdated to say the least but that did not discouraged me.

Somewhere in 2005 I installed FreeBSD 5.4 on my computer. The beginnings were hard, like the earlier step with Gentoo but similarly like Gentoo the FreeBSD project came with a lot of great documentation. While Gentoo documentation is concentrated within various Gentoo Wiki sites the FreeBSD project comes with ‘official’ documentation in the form of Handbook and FAQ. I remember my first questions at the now nonexistent BSDForums.org site – for example one of the first ones – how to scroll the terminal output in the plain console. I now know that I had to push Scroll Lock button but it was something totally new for me.

How BSDForums.org looked like.


This is the earliest screenshot I got from that period, and Gentoo setup looked very similar.


Why FreeBSD and not OpenBSD or NetBSD? Probably because Gentoo based most their concepts on the FreeBSD solutions, so that led me to FreeBSD instead of the other BSD operating systems. Currently I still use FreeBSD but I keep an steady eye on the OpenBSD, HardenedBSD and DragonFly BSD solutions and improvements.

As the migration path from Linux to FreeBSD is a lot easier – all configuration files from /home can be just copied – the migration was quite fast easy. I again had the Fluxbox configuration which I used on the Gentoo. Now – on FreeBSD – it started to fell even more like AMIGA times. Everything is/has been well thought and had its place and reason. The documentation was good and the FreeBSD Community was second to none.

I even decided to upgrade the hardware to something more exotic. I got Gigabyte-GA-7DPXDW server motherboard with dual CPU sockets – and as Athlon XP (desktop) processors were very easily modified to ‘be’ Athlon MP (server) ones I got also the second one along with 1 GB of ECC RAM.


This dual CPU setup – quite unusual at these times – server me very well. I switched from nvidia binary blob driver to software but open nv because nvidia would break my uptime every several days ๐Ÿ™‚

I accumulated 30 days of uptime on that desktop box, not bad for a system without any emergency UPS ๐Ÿ™‚


This was also the last time I used ECC RAM on FreeBSD (at least on my boxes) while ZFS did not even existed on FreeBSD ๐Ÿ™‚ But as time flied I started to feel the need for something faster. As I also got interested in Intel graphics card I got the new motherboard with fastest Intel graphics card available then – as silly as it sounds – the Asus P5B-V with Intel X3000 GMA … and that was a terrible idea because FreeBSD graphics stack supported all the Intel graphics cards instead of that one. At the beginning I used software vesa driver but the problem was not the performance of the driver (as I also had quad core Intel Q6600 CPU) but the resolution on the screen. As I got 1280 x 1024 screen by then using limited 1024 x 768 was real PITA. I decided that I will try something else then FreeBSD will Intel X3000 support finally arrives. I needed to do something fast as I also needed to write my Masters Thesis at that time.

That was in the middle of 2007. I wanted to try the other end of the Linux distributions spectrum. Ubuntu. I could not go more ‘desktop’ way ๐Ÿ™‚ It of course installed gently with GNOME 2 environment and pulseaudio already unfortunately existed. As I preferred to run my computer all the time back then (I did not payed the electricity bills) there were several things that annoyed my very much. For example the mentioned pulseaudio – the sound freezed after one-two days of using the computer (even if I did not played any music or videos) and it stayed that way. I could restart pulseaudio or reload the ALSA modules but it stayed in this SUSFU state (situation unchanged still fucked up) until reboot. As I needed to finish my Masters Thesis I did not had time to reinstall into something else as pulseaudio will be probably similarly broken on other Linux distributions and FreeBSD was still lacking the Intel X3000 GMA support. Generally GNOME 2 experience was not bad but I really missed all my custom settings, keyboard shortcuts and customized behavior. I remained in pain on the Ubuntu for two months – to the time I have finished my Masters Thesis about Operating Systems’ Virtualization which you can download and read but its in Polish so use translator if needed ๐Ÿ™‚

This is how Ubuntu looked back then.


I also had ‘side’ journey to the Mac wonderland as I got opportunity to use Macbook Pro with Mac OS X Leopard for a year. That allowed me to get real ‘feel’ of the Mac ecosystem and their hardware (and philosophy) so I will not repeat same stereotypes over and over again like a lot of anti-apple people. But after I switched back to FreeBSD system at work it just felt better. I used Terminal.app on Mac a lot but the xterm(1) at FreeBSD just felt more natural.

What makes me laugh now that I created Mac styled Fluxbox themes years till I got to run Mac and I still like Mac OS X look from the Leopard times.


There was time on which I also played with Solaris (and later OpenSolaris). I must admit that there was time when Solaris so called Java Desktop based on GNOME 2 was really looking good. It was so good that only Mac OS X could only rival it for the best looking os by then.


I really liked Solaris concepts and solutions like Zones and ZFS, also Crossbow, Comstar or IPS (FreeBSD did not had PNGng by then). But I always got problem with ‘desktop’ software. While I had everything in the FreeBSD Ports – almost the same amount of applications that is available on Linux – there was always some applications lacking in the Solaris world.

The Solaris ‘journey’ also left print on my soul so my Fluxbox themes went into Solaris style ๐Ÿ™‚


After the Ubuntu fiasco I got other motherboard as FreeBSD still did not supported Intel GMA X3000 card and settled in the FreeBSD land again. What a relief it was after this pulseaudio nonsense. In the meantime as I read a lot of good experiences about Openbox I decided to try it out instead of Fluxbox. It was strange feeling to mess with XML configuration files at the beginning but as I got used to it and ordered the rc.xml and menu.xml configuration files properly it was not a problem. Since then I used FreeBSD on different machines including physical servers, virtual machines and laptops. I learned that adequate supported hardware is the most important factor in FreeBSD ecosystem.

I still use Openbox and still use FreeBSD today and my desktop looks like that one below.


After 15 years of using various Windows, UNIX (macOS/AIX/HP-UX/Solaris/OpenSolaris/Illumos/FreeBSD/OpenBSD/NetBSD) and UNIX-like (Linux) systems I always come to conclusion that FreeBSD is the system that sucks least. And sucks least with each release and one day I will write why FreeBSD is such great operating system … if I already haven’t ๐Ÿ™‚


As Roman Zolotarev got a moment he added my story to his Tell Your BSD Story page.

Thanks Roman!

You may check it for yourself at Slawomir Wojciech Wojtczak (vermaden) runs FreeBSD page.



FreeBSD Desktop – Part 15 – Configuration – Fonts & Frameworks

The title of this article kinda sounds for me like Fast & Furious title … In this part of FreeBSD Desktop series we will focus on the fonts settings andย GTK/QT frameworks configuration to make applications based on them look good … or at least better.

You may want to check other articles in the FreeBSD Desktop series on the FreeBSD Desktop – Global Page where you will find links to all episodes of the series along with table of contents for each episodeโ€™s contents.


Proper rendering of fonts in the system is not an easy task, even most popular desktop oriented operating systems like macOS (Mac OS X) and Windows have problems with it.

We will of course focus on FreeBSD fonts settings but most of that information will be reusable on other operating systems that use X11 Window System for the desktop.

To not duplicate the knowledge already available for this topic please read these two sources for handling fonts on the FreeBSD operating system.

System Settings

The font rendering on X11 Window System desktops is made by fontconfig package. The system wide configuration is kept under /usr/local/etc/fonts directory. You can even verify that it belongs to the fontconfig package with pkg-which(8) command.

% pkg which /usr/local/etc/fonts/fonts.conf.sample
/usr/local/etc/fonts/fonts.conf.sample was installed by package fontconfig-2.12.6,1

For the fonts settings there are two directories for that purpose.

  • /usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.avail
  • /usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d

If you want to enable a feature then you create a symlink in the /usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d directory that leads to a small config file in the /usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.avail directory.

Here are all available options.

% ls -1 /usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.avail

… and here are options enabled on my system.

% ls -1 /usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d

You may even check which of these files/features are enabled by which package.

% for FILE in /usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/*.conf; do pkg which ${FILE}; done
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/10-hinting-none.conf was not found in the database
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/10-hinting-slight.conf was installed by package fontconfig-2.12.6,1
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/10-scale-bitmap-fonts.conf was installed by package fontconfig-2.12.6,1
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/10-sub-pixel-rgb.conf was not found in the database
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/10-unhinted.conf was not found in the database
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/11-lcdfilter-default.conf was not found in the database
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/20-unhint-small-dejavu-sans-mono.conf was installed by package dejavu-2.37
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/20-unhint-small-dejavu-sans.conf was installed by package dejavu-2.37
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/20-unhint-small-dejavu-serif.conf was installed by package dejavu-2.37
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/20-unhint-small-vera.conf was installed by package fontconfig-2.12.6,1
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/30-metric-aliases.conf was installed by package fontconfig-2.12.6,1
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/40-nonlatin.conf was installed by package fontconfig-2.12.6,1
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/42-luxi-mono.conf was installed by package font-bh-ttf-1.0.3_3
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/45-generic.conf was installed by package fontconfig-2.12.6,1
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/45-latin.conf was installed by package fontconfig-2.12.6,1
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/49-sansserif.conf was installed by package fontconfig-2.12.6,1
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/50-user.conf was installed by package fontconfig-2.12.6,1
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/51-local.conf was installed by package fontconfig-2.12.6,1
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/57-dejavu-sans-mono.conf was installed by package dejavu-2.37
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/57-dejavu-sans.conf was installed by package dejavu-2.37
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/57-dejavu-serif.conf was installed by package dejavu-2.37
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/60-generic.conf was installed by package fontconfig-2.12.6,1
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/60-latin.conf was installed by package fontconfig-2.12.6,1
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/65-fonts-persian.conf was installed by package fontconfig-2.12.6,1
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/65-nonlatin.conf was installed by package fontconfig-2.12.6,1
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/69-unifont.conf was installed by package fontconfig-2.12.6,1
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/80-delicious.conf was installed by package fontconfig-2.12.6,1
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/90-synthetic.conf was installed by package fontconfig-2.12.6,1
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/99pdftoopvp.conf was installed by package cups-filters-1.16.0_5

Most of the settings are of course make by the fontconfig package. As you see the 4 files are not installed by any package, they were symlinked/configured by me.

These settings seems to make fonts look best, I will ‘repeat’ these settings in various other files that we will use.

/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/10-hinting-none.conf was not found in the database
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/10-sub-pixel-rgb.conf was not found in the database
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/10-unhinted.conf was not found in the database
/usr/local/etc/fonts/conf.d/11-lcdfilter-default.conf was not found in the database

If you would like to make system wide settings then do not use the provided /usr/local/etc/fonts/fonts.conf file. Use the /usr/local/etc/fonts/local.conf instead because /usr/local/etc/fonts/fonts.conf file will be replaced with next fontconfig package update.

User Settings

I keep most of the settings/fonts in the user home dir like ~/.config and ~/.fonts directories. Its easier for me to move/backup/import these then to edit or merge the system files everytime.

The fonts are kept in the ~/.fonts directory. I will of course share the fonts of this directory, here is the list of the fonts that are available for download as fonts.tar.gz file.

  • Arvo
  • Calibri
  • Cambria
  • Cantarell
  • Clear Sans
  • Consolas
  • Constantia
  • Corbel
  • Cormorant
  • Cosmic Sans Neue Mono
  • Courier Prime Code
  • Courier Prime Sans
  • Fira Code
  • Fira Mono
  • Fira Sans
  • Francophil Sans
  • Garamond
  • Georgia
  • IBM Plex Mono
  • IBM Plex Sans
  • Inconsolata
  • Monofur
  • Monoid
  • Pro Font Windows
  • Proggy Tiny Zero
  • PT Sans
  • SV Basic Manual
  • Trebuchet MS
  • Ubuntu
  • Ubuntu Mono

I would say that Consolas, Ubuntu Mono and Inconsolata are one of the best monospaced fonts while Trebuchet MS is probably the best looking (and properly rendered) font for non-monospaced/sans serif font category. I also really like Fira, IBM Plex and also Ubuntu family. The new Cantarell font is also pretty nice.

Lots of these fonts can be installed using installing FreeBSD Ports under /usr/ports/x11-fonts category and by pkg(8) packages, but its simpler for me to keep (and move) them in the ~/.fonts directory then to install packages everytime I need them. I also only keep the ones that I need/use while port/package often provides while set of them. For long time the user configuration for fonts was kept under ~/.fonts.conf file but it is no more. The new place is the ~/.config/fontconfig/fonts.conf file.

Mine config is not that long but check its contents for yourself.

While WordPress is quite a nice platform it has it problems – it will not render properly content in HTML or XML. To not introduce eventual problems related to that I will post a screenshot of the config below along with link to the ~/.config/fontconfig/fonts.conf file.


These settings were forged for more then 15 years of my time first using Slackware and Gentoo Linux and since about 2005 – FreeBSD. As You can see from the comments I swap several bad looking fonts for good looking ones.

For example if You do not like the Arial font you may want to swap it into the Trebuchet MS font with this snippet added to the ~/.config/fontconfig/fonts.conf file.

Similarly with another XML snippet – I will post a screenshot of the config below along with link to the example file.


To make the test we will use this simple fonts-swap-test.html HTML file.

Here is how it looks in Epiphany after the change in the ~/.config/fontconfig/fonts.conf file.


The Arial font has been swapped into Trebuchet MS one. For sure Epiphany, Firefox and Midori do respect this swap, I did not tried other browsers.

Remember to reload the fontconfig cache after changes to the ~/.config/fontconfig/fonts.conf file, you may do that using already posted fc-cache.sh script.


Some also call them toolkits. Things like GTK or QT are in this category.


My favorite framework and least PITA one at the same time for good looking desktop was GTK2. GTK1 was always ugly, fast and light, but ugly. I think we can agree on that. GTK2 from the times when GNOME 2 was considered ‘heavy’ desktop environment. Now GTK2 is mostly deprecated (some applications still use it and they still work good) in favor of GTK3 and GNOME 2 is dead. Fortunately it has been forked into project named MATE and MATE seems light now, what an irony. Fortunately because old GNOME 2 file manager – Nautilus – seems to be one of the best file managers for the UNIX systems, sure not the lightest/fastest one, but a one that suits lots/most of the needs. Under the MATE team the Nautilus has been rebranded into Caja. Caja accompanied by Thunar from the Xfce desktop environment with its mass rename tool seems to be the most universal solution for graphical file management on UNIX. They also look similar/coherent as they both use GTK3 toolkit now (before they both used GTK2 framework).

GNOME 3 and its apps use GTK3 exclusively. You may also check Cinnamon which is GNOME 3 fork with an idea to provide GNOME 2 classic experience based on modern tools and modern GTK3 framework. The MATE desktop also moved to the GTK3 so we now have two GNOME 2 successors based on GTK3. The GTK3 is not a problematic framework, but some of its applications are, probably most of the ones written on/for the GNOME 3 environment. They come with their own built-in window buttons/handlers overwriting/ignoring the ones provided by window managers. Not so long ago the default settings left you with additional border of 5 or so pixels for each side of the window if You do not use composition/shadows manager like compton, which wastes screen space. Below you will find example from just 2 months ago with this problem.


Fortunately its gone now (the additional border) and Epiphany – as an example of such GNOME 3 app – works/displays properly and is shown below.


Both GTK2 and GTK3 use/used these environment variables exported by export(1). I am not sure if they are still respected but I do not want to check all my apps to find out and keeping then in the ~/.xinitrc file does not hurt.

  export GDK_USE_XFT=1


The configuration for GTK2 framework is kept in the ~/.gtkrc-2.0 file.

Alternatively – when you use various graphical tools/managers for GTK2 settings like lxapperance you may want to use ~/.gtkrc-2.0.mine instead.

Here is mine ~/.gtkrc-2.0 file with its contents.

% cat ~/.gtkrc-2.0
  include "/home/vermaden/.gtkrc-2.0.mine"
  gtk-font-name="Ubuntu 10"

The selected theme is Arc (use /usr/ports/x11-themes/gtk-arc-themes port/package) and the icon theme is Faenza (use /usr/ports/x11-themes/mate-icon-theme-faenza port/package). For the user the GTK themes are kept under the ~/.themes directory while icon sets are kept under the ~/.icons directory. I also set font to Ubuntu in the size of 10. Remember that it can also be set as ubuntu or UBUNTU. To check what font will be selected by what You type there use the fc-match(1) command from the fontconfig package.

% fc-match ubuntu
ubuntu.ttf: "Ubuntu" "Regular"

% fc-match UBUNTU
ubuntu.ttf: "Ubuntu" "Regular"

The last 4 settings – gtk-xft-* – are the ones related to fonts rendering, as I said earlier, these settings will be ‘repeated’ over various other files. Currently there is no single file to configure all fonts behavior unfortunately.

The GTK2 File Chooser keeps its configuration in the ~/.config/gtk-2.0/gtkfilechooser.ini file, its not needed to configure this file.

The GTK2 Bookmarks are stored in the ~/.gtk-bookmarks file.

Here are contents of mine.

% cat ~/.gtk-bookmarks
file:///home/vermaden/hydepark ~/hydepark
file:///home/vermaden/books ~/books
file:///home/vermaden/gfx ~/gfx
file:///home/vermaden/gfx/wallpapers ~/gfx/wallpapers
file:///home/vermaden/gfx/screenshots ~/gfx/screenshots
file:///home/vermaden/misc ~/misc
file:///home/vermaden/misc/aix ~/misc/aix
file:///home/vermaden/misc/bsd ~/misc/bsd
file:///home/vermaden/misc/hp-ux ~/misc/hp-ux
file:///home/vermaden/misc/linux ~/misc/linux
file:///home/vermaden/misc/solaris ~/misc/solaris
file:///home/vermaden/misc/hardware ~/misc/hardware
file:///home/vermaden/misc/emc ~/misc/emc
file:///home/vermaden/misc/tsm ~/misc/tsm
file:///home/vermaden/mp3 ~/mp3
file:///home/vermaden/photo.NEW ~/photo.NEW
file:///home/vermaden/vm ~/vm
file:///home/vermaden/vm/iso ~/vm/iso
file:///home/vermaden/vm/storage ~/vm/storage


The GTK3 files are more ordered then GTK2 files. The main configuration is kept in the ~/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini file.

Here are my current GTK3 settings.

% cat ~/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini
  gtk-theme-name          = Arc
  gtk-icon-theme-name     = faenza
  gtk-font-name           = Ubuntu 10
  gtk-cursor-theme-size   = 0
  gtk-toolbar-style       = GTK_TOOLBAR_ICONS
  gtk-toolbar-icon-size   = GTK_ICON_SIZE_SMALL_TOOLBAR
  gtk-button-images       = 1
  gtk-menu-images         = 1
  gtk-enable-event-sounds = 1
  gtk-xft-antialias       = 1
  gtk-xft-hinting         = 0
  gtk-xft-hintstyle       = hintnone
  gtk-xft-rgba            = rgb

Besides little different syntax the settings are the same as in the GTK2 configuration, thus I will not comment them again to not repeat myself.

The GTK3 Bookmarks are kept in the ~/.config/gtk-3.0/bookmarks file and their syntax is the same as it were for the GTK2 toolkit.

% cat ~/.config/gtk-3.0/bookmarks
file:///home/vermaden/hydepark ~/hydepark
file:///home/vermaden/books ~/books
file:///home/vermaden/gfx ~/gfx
file:///home/vermaden/gfx/wallpapers ~/gfx/wallpapers
file:///home/vermaden/gfx/screenshots ~/gfx/screenshots
file:///home/vermaden/misc ~/misc
file:///home/vermaden/misc/aix ~/misc/aix
file:///home/vermaden/misc/bsd ~/misc/bsd
file:///home/vermaden/misc/hp-ux ~/misc/hp-ux
file:///home/vermaden/misc/linux ~/misc/linux
file:///home/vermaden/misc/solaris ~/misc/solaris
file:///home/vermaden/misc/hardware ~/misc/hardware
file:///home/vermaden/misc/emc ~/misc/emc
file:///home/vermaden/misc/tsm ~/misc/tsm
file:///home/vermaden/mp3 ~/mp3
file:///home/vermaden/photo.NEW ~/photo.NEW
file:///home/vermaden/vm ~/vm
file:///home/vermaden/vm/iso ~/vm/iso
file:///home/vermaden/vm/storage ~/vm/storage

As the GTK2 Bookmarks and GTK3 Bookmarks have the same format you may symlink one to another to not keep two lists of your favorite places.

As the GTK3 framework uses CSS you may tune the GTK3 to your needs in the ~/.config/gtk-3.0/gtk.css file according to the documentation provided by the GNOME team – GTK+ CSS Overview – available here.

I have tried various hacks in the past but after removing them my problems with GTK3 toolkit vanished. If you will find some interesting settings then let me know ๐Ÿ™‚


The QT toolkit configuration was always a real PITA and this haven’t changed in the latest QT5 release. The default themes provided are ugly and the ones available to download are not that much better. The KDE Plasma 5 looks quite well but making QT4/QT5 look nice on a custom window manager environment is whole other story. With my settings I have minimized the ‘damage’ of the tragic QT look.

I also feel that GTK and its configuration is more UNIX oriented as you only need to edit the files while QT feels more Windows oriented as you often need the graphical config tool to set the options properly.

The QT3/QT4/QT5 use/used these environment variables exported by export(1). I am not sure if they are still respected but I do not want to check all my apps to find out and keeping then in the ~/.xinitrc file does not hurt.

  export QT_XFT=1

  export GTK2_RC_FILES="${HOME}/.gtkrc-2.0"

# QT5 qt5ct


I am not sure if any ‘current’ application uses it, the legendary Opera 12.x used it for sure and configuration was made using the qtconfig graphical utility.


The QT4 configuration is kept in the ~/.config/Trolltech.conf file (very obvious indeed) and the graphical tool/editor is qt4-qtconfig installed from qt4-qtconfig port/package.

Here is how my current configuration looks like (yes its long and ugly).

% cat ~/.config/Trolltech.conf
usr\local\lib\qt4\plugins\imageformats\libqgif.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-12-19T09:37:13
usr\local\lib\qt4\plugins\imageformats\libqico.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-12-19T09:37:13
usr\local\lib\qt4\plugins\imageformats\libqjpeg.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-12-19T09:37:13
usr\local\lib\qt4\plugins\imageformats\libqmng.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-12-19T09:37:13
usr\local\lib\qt4\plugins\imageformats\libqsvg.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-12-19T09:37:13
usr\local\lib\qt4\plugins\imageformats\libqtga.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-12-19T09:37:13
usr\local\lib\qt4\plugins\imageformats\libqtiff.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-12-19T09:37:13
usr\local\lib\qt4\plugins\iconengines\libqsvgicon.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2015-11-21T02:41:20
usr\local\lib\qt4\plugins\inputmethods\libqimsw-multi.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang no-pkg-config, 2015-11-21T02:41:27
usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_dds.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:10:23
usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_eps.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:10:23
usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_exr.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:10:23
usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_jp2.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:10:23
usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_pcx.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:10:23
usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_pic.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:10:23
usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_psd.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:10:23
usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_ras.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:10:23
usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_rgb.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:10:23
usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_tga.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:10:23
usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_xcf.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:10:23
usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_xview.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:10:23
usr\local\lib\kde4\okularpart.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:52:40
usr\local\lib\kde4\okularGenerator_epub.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:52:40
usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\kscreen\KSC_XRandR.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:12:14
usr\local\lib\kde4\okularGenerator_mobi.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:52:40
usr\local\lib\kde4\okularGenerator_txt.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:52:40
usr\local\lib\kde4\okularGenerator_fb.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:52:40
usr\local\lib\kde4\okularGenerator_ghostview.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:52:40
usr\local\lib\kde4\okularGenerator_ooo.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:52:40
usr\local\lib\kde4\okularGenerator_poppler.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2017-11-26T09:52:40
usr\local\lib\qt4\plugins\styles\libkvantum.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2018-07-07T05:29:12
usr\local\lib\keepassx\libkeepassx-autotype-x11.so=40807, 0, x86_64 usr/local/share/qt4/mkspecs/freebsd clang full-config, 2018-08-09T05:30:15

com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\lib\qt4\plugins\imageformats\libqgif.so=2017-12-19T09:37:13, gif
com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\lib\qt4\plugins\imageformats\libqico.so=2017-12-19T09:37:13, ico
com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\lib\qt4\plugins\imageformats\libqjpeg.so=2017-12-19T09:37:13, jpeg, jpg
com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\lib\qt4\plugins\imageformats\libqmng.so=2017-12-19T09:37:13, mng
com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\lib\qt4\plugins\imageformats\libqsvg.so=2017-12-19T09:37:13, svg, svgz
com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\lib\qt4\plugins\imageformats\libqtga.so=2017-12-19T09:37:13, tga
com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\lib\qt4\plugins\imageformats\libqtiff.so=2017-12-19T09:37:13, tiff, tif
com.trolltech.Qt.QIconEngineFactoryInterfaceV2%3A\usr\local\lib\qt4\plugins\iconengines\libqsvgicon.so=2015-11-21T02:41:20, svg, svgz, svg.gz
com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_dds.so=2017-11-26T09:10:23, dds
com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_eps.so=2017-11-26T09:10:23, eps, EPS, epsi, EPSI, epsf, EPSF
com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_exr.so=2017-11-26T09:10:23, exr, EXR
com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_jp2.so=2017-11-26T09:10:23, jp2
com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_pcx.so=2017-11-26T09:10:23, pcx, PCX
com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_pic.so=2017-11-26T09:10:23, pic
com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_psd.so=2017-11-26T09:10:23, psd, PSD
com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_ras.so=2017-11-26T09:10:23, ras, RAS
com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_rgb.so=2017-11-26T09:10:23, rgb, RGB, rgba, RGBA, bw, BW, sgi, SGI
com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_tga.so=2017-11-26T09:10:23, tga, TGA
com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_xcf.so=2017-11-26T09:10:23, xcf, XCF
com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\lib\kde4\plugins\imageformats\kimg_xview.so=2017-11-26T09:10:23, xv
com.trolltech.Qt.QStyleFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\lib\qt4\plugins\styles\libkvantum.so=2018-07-07T05:29:12, Kvantum

Palette\active=#000000, #dedede, #ffffff, #eeeeee, #6f6f6f, #949494, #000000, #ffffff, #000000, #ffffff, #dedede, #000000, #8f8f8f, #ffffff, #8f8f8f, #c753ae, #eeeeee, #000000, #ffffdc, #000000
Palette\inactive=#000000, #dedede, #ffffff, #ffffff, #6f6f6f, #949494, #000000, #ffffff, #000000, #ffffff, #dedede, #000000, #8f8f8f, #ffffff, #8f8f8f, #c753ae, #eeeeee, #000000, #ffffdc, #000000
Palette\disabled=#808080, #dedede, #ffffff, #ffffff, #6f6f6f, #949494, #808080, #ffffff, #808080, #ffffff, #dedede, #000000, #8f8f8f, #808080, #8f8f8f, #c753ae, #eeeeee, #000000, #ffffdc, #000000
XIMInputStyle=On The Spot
filedialog="@ByteArray(\0\0\0\xbe\0\0\0\x3\0\0\0\x1e\0\0\0\xff\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\x2\0\0\0K\0\0\xe\0\x1\0\0\0\x6\x1\0\0\0\x1\0\0\0\x2\0\0\0\x5\x66ile:\0\0\0\x15\x66ile:///home/vermaden\0\0\0\x5\0\0\0.\0/\0h\0o\0m\0\x65\0/\0v\0\x65\0r\0m\0\x61\0\x64\0\x65\0n\0/\0\x64\0o\0w\0n\0l\0o\0\x61\0\x64\0\0\0\x34\0/\0h\0o\0m\0\x65\0/\0v\0\x65\0r\0m\0\x61\0\x64\0\x65\0n\0/\0g\0\x61\0m\0\x65\0s\0.\0L\0O\0\x43\0\x41\0L\0\0\0*\0/\0h\0o\0m\0\x65\0/\0v\0\x65\0r\0m\0\x61\0\x64\0\x65\0n\0/\0v\0m\0/\0i\0s\0o\0\0\0\xa4\0/\0h\0o\0m\0\x65\0/\0v\0\x65\0r\0m\0\x61\0\x64\0\x65\0n\0/\0\x64\0o\0w\0n\0l\0o\0\x61\0\x64\0/\0W\0i\0n\0\x64\0o\0w\0s\0 \0\x37\0w\0s\0z\0y\0s\0t\0k\0i\0\x65\0 \0w\0\x65\0r\0s\0j\0\x65\0 \0x\0\x38\0\x36\0 \0x\0\x36\0\x34\0 \0[\0P\0L\0]\0/\0W\0i\0n\0\x64\0o\0w\0s\0 \0\x37\0 \0S\0P\0\x31\0 \0 \0[\0P\0L\0]\0\0\0\x32\0/\0h\0o\0m\0\x65\0/\0v\0\x65\0r\0m\0\x61\0\x64\0\x65\0n\0/\0v\0m\0/\0s\0t\0o\0r\0\x61\0g\0\x65\0\0\0*\0/\0h\0o\0m\0\x65\0/\0v\0\x65\0r\0m\0\x61\0\x64\0\x65\0n\0/\0v\0m\0/\0i\0s\0o\0\0\0~\0\0\0\xff\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\x1\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\x1\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\x1T\0\0\0\x4\x1\x1\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\x64\xff\xff\xff\xff\0\0\0\x81\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\x4\0\0\0\xb5\0\0\0\x1\0\0\0\0\0\0\0)\0\0\0\x1\0\0\0\0\0\0\0,\0\0\0\x1\0\0\0\0\0\0\0J\0\0\0\x1\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\x1)"

usr\local\share\google-earth\plugins\imageformats\libqgif.so=40601, 0, generic linux lsb-g++ full-config, 2011-05-17T09:42:02
usr\local\share\google-earth\plugins\imageformats\libqjpeg.so=40601, 0, generic linux lsb-g++ full-config, 2011-05-17T09:42:02

com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\share\google-earth\plugins\imageformats\libqgif.so=2011-05-17T09:42:02, gif
com.trolltech.Qt.QImageIOHandlerFactoryInterface%3A\usr\local\share\google-earth\plugins\imageformats\libqjpeg.so=2011-05-17T09:42:02, jpeg, jpg

… and how it looks when loaded in the qt4-qtconfig editor.



The QT5 is kinda special as it requires this export(1) in the ~/.xinitrc (or ~/.xsession) file.

# QT5 qt5ct

Do not ask me why and I do not even want to know ๐Ÿ™‚

The QT5 configuration is kept in the ~/.config/qt5ct/qt5ct.conf file and the graphical tool/editor is qt5ct installed from qt5ct port/package.

Here is how my current QT5 configuration looks like.

% cat ~/.config/qt5ct/qt5ct.conf




… and how it looks when loaded in the qt5ct editor.


Back to the Xdefaults

The ~/.Xdefaults file (some use ~/.Xresources instead) also contain fonts information and setup of the cursor theme for the X11 Window System session.

Below you will find my settings, as mentined earlier, also ‘copied’ here.

! -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Xft.antialias:  true
  Xft.hinting:    false
  Xft.hintstyle:  0
  Xft.dpi:        75
  Xft.rgba:       none

! -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Xcursor.theme: Vanilla-DMZ
  Xcursor.size:  24

The cursor theme is from the /usr/ports/x11-themes/cursor-dmz-theme port/package.

Xinitrc and Back Again

For the record, the complete GTK/QT settings in the ~/.xinitrc file are as follows.

  export GTK2_RC_FILES="${HOME}/.gtkrc-2.0"

# QT5 qt5ct

  export QT_XFT=1
  export GDK_USE_XFT=1

  export OOO_FORCE_DESKTOP=gnome

Hope that information provided in this article moved you one more step closer to good looking and practical FreeBSD desktop ๐Ÿ˜‰


There is one more possible way to make the FreeBSD Desktop QT4/QT5 toolkits look less ugly. The default GNOME theme is Adwaita. There also exists adwaita-qt – a QT port of that Adwaita theme. It aims to make QT to look like the GTK+ 3 Adwaita theme.


To make use of them add the adwaita-qt4 and adwaita-qt5 packages.

# pkg install adwaita-qt4 adwaita-qt5

Then use qt4-qtconfig to set the style to Adwaita as the default QT4 theme.


After setup QT4 theme can be verified like that.

% grep -B 1 style= ~/.config/Trolltech.conf

Then start qt5ct to set the style to Adwaita as the default QT5 theme.


After setup QT5 theme can be verified like that.

% grep -B 1 -i adwaita ~/.config/qt5ct/qt5ct.conf

Transmission rendered in GTK+ toolkit.


Transmission rendered in QT4 toolkit.


Still not perfect but at least less ugly ๐Ÿ™‚