Tag Archives: freebsd

FreeBSD Enterprise Storage at PBUG

Yesterday I was honored to give a talk about FreeBSD Enterprise Storage at the Polish BSD User Group meeting.

You are invited to download the PDF Slides – https://is.gd/bsdstg – available here.

bsdstg

The PBUG (Polish BSD User Group) meetings are very special. In “The Matrix” movie (which has been rendered on FreeBSD system by the way) – FreeBSD Used to Generate Spectacular Special Effects – details available here – its not possible to describe what the Matrix really is, one has to feel it. Enter it. The same I can tell you about the PBUG meetings. Its kinda like with the “Hangover” movie. What happens in Vegas PBUG meeting stays in Vegas PBUG meeting πŸ™‚

If you will have the possibility and time then join the next Polish BSD User Group meeting. You will not regret it :>

UPDATE 1 – Shorter Unified Version

The original – https://is.gd/bsdstg – presentation is 187 pages long and is suited for live presentation while not the best for later ‘offline’ view.

I have created a unified version – https://is.gd/bsdstguni – with only 42 pages.

EOF

Run broot on FreeBSD

The broot file manager is quite fresh and nice approach to files and directories filtering/searching/view/manipulation/… and whatever else you call messing with files πŸ™‚

The broot tools is not yet available on the FreeBSD systems (as package or port).

This guide will show you how to built and install it on your FreeBSD system.

Here is how it looks in action.

Filter for jails.

broot-filter-jails.jpg

Filter for zfs.

broot-filter-zfs.jpg

It has ‘size mode’ when started with -s option similar to ncdu(1) tool.

broot-filter-size.jpg

You can also check the Feature Showcase section on their GitHub page – https://github.com/Canop/broot – available here.

Build

There are three steps to make it happen.

1. You need to install the rust package.

# pkg install rust

Then you need to type (as regular user) the cargo install broot command.

% cargo install broot

It will fail here:

broot-fail.jpg

You will need to apply this patch below:

% diff -u \
  /home/vermaden/.cargo/registry/src/github.com-1ecc6299db9ec823/crossterm-0.14.1/src/terminal/sys/unix.rs.ORG \
  /home/vermaden/.cargo/registry/src/github.com-1ecc6299db9ec823/crossterm-0.14.1/src/terminal/sys/unix.rs
--- /home/vermaden/.cargo/registry/src/github.com-1ecc6299db9ec823/crossterm-0.14.1/src/terminal/sys/unix.rs.ORG  2020-01-10 23:41:29.825912000 +0100
+++ /home/vermaden/.cargo/registry/src/github.com-1ecc6299db9ec823/crossterm-0.14.1/src/terminal/sys/unix.rs      2020-01-10 23:41:07.703471000 +0100
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@
         ws_ypixel: 0,
     };
 
-    if let Ok(true) = wrap_with_result(unsafe { ioctl(STDOUT_FILENO, TIOCGWINSZ, &mut size) }) {
+    if let Ok(true) = wrap_with_result(unsafe { ioctl(STDOUT_FILENO, TIOCGWINSZ.into(), &mut size) }) {
         Ok((size.ws_col, size.ws_row))
     } else {
         tput_size().ok_or_else(|| std::io::Error::last_os_error().into())

Then type cargo install broot command again. It will now properly compile.

% cargo install broot
    Updating crates.io index
  Downloaded broot v0.11.6
  Downloaded 1 crate (1.6 MB) in 2.89s
  Installing broot v0.11.6
   Compiling libc v0.2.66
   Compiling cfg-if v0.1.10
   Compiling lazy_static v1.4.0
   Compiling autocfg v0.1.7
   Compiling semver-parser v0.7.0
   Compiling autocfg v1.0.0
   Compiling proc-macro2 v1.0.7
   Compiling log v0.4.8
   Compiling scopeguard v1.0.0
   Compiling unicode-xid v0.2.0
   Compiling bitflags v1.2.1
   Compiling syn v1.0.13
   Compiling memchr v2.2.1
   Compiling arc-swap v0.4.4
   Compiling slab v0.4.2
   Compiling smallvec v1.1.0
   Compiling serde v1.0.104
   Compiling unicode-width v0.1.7
   Compiling regex-syntax v0.6.13
   Compiling ansi_term v0.11.0
   Compiling strsim v0.8.0
   Compiling vec_map v0.8.1
   Compiling id-arena v2.2.1
   Compiling custom_error v1.7.1
   Compiling glob v0.3.0
   Compiling open v1.3.2
   Compiling umask v0.1.8
   Compiling thread_local v1.0.0
   Compiling minimad v0.6.3
   Compiling lazy-regex v0.1.2
   Compiling semver v0.9.0
   Compiling lock_api v0.3.3
   Compiling crossbeam-utils v0.7.0
   Compiling crossbeam-epoch v0.8.0
   Compiling num-traits v0.2.11
   Compiling num-integer v0.1.42
   Compiling textwrap v0.11.0
   Compiling rustc_version v0.2.3
   Compiling memoffset v0.5.3
   Compiling iovec v0.1.4
   Compiling net2 v0.2.33
   Compiling dirs-sys v0.3.4
   Compiling parking_lot_core v0.7.0
   Compiling signal-hook-registry v1.2.0
   Compiling time v0.1.42
   Compiling atty v0.2.14
   Compiling users v0.9.1
   Compiling quote v1.0.2
   Compiling aho-corasick v0.7.6
   Compiling mio v0.6.21
   Compiling dirs v2.0.2
   Compiling directories v2.0.2
   Compiling parking_lot v0.10.0
   Compiling clap v2.33.0
   Compiling crossbeam-queue v0.2.1
   Compiling crossbeam-channel v0.4.0
   Compiling toml v0.5.5
   Compiling term v0.6.1
   Compiling regex v1.3.3
   Compiling signal-hook v0.1.12
   Compiling chrono v0.4.10
   Compiling crossterm v0.14.1
   Compiling simplelog v0.7.4
   Compiling crossbeam-deque v0.7.2
   Compiling thiserror-impl v1.0.9
   Compiling crossbeam v0.7.3
   Compiling thiserror v1.0.9
   Compiling termimad v0.8.9
   Compiling broot v0.11.6
    Finished release [optimized] target(s) in 4m 56s
  Installing /home/vermaden/.cargo/bin/broot
   Installed package `broot v0.11.6` (executable `broot`)
warning: be sure to add `/home/vermaden/.cargo/bin` to your PATH to be able to run the installed binaries

% echo $?
0

Install

Now go to the ~/.cargo/bin directory and copy the broot binary to some place that is set in your ${PATH} variable.

Then start new terminal (updated ${PATH} variable) and type broot command.

% cp ~/.cargo/bin/broot ~/scripts
% rehash
% broot

You will be asked if automatic setup of the br function should tool place. I agreed with y answer.

broot-first-run.jpg

Here are things generated by this process.

% find ~/.config/broot
/home/vermaden/.config/broot
/home/vermaden/.config/broot/conf.toml
/home/vermaden/.config/broot/launcher
/home/vermaden/.config/broot/launcher/installed-v1
/home/vermaden/.config/broot/launcher/bash
/home/vermaden/.config/broot/launcher/bash/br

% find ~/.local/share/broot
/home/vermaden/.local/share/broot
/home/vermaden/.local/share/broot/launcher
/home/vermaden/.local/share/broot/launcher/fish
/home/vermaden/.local/share/broot/launcher/fish/1.fish
/home/vermaden/.local/share/broot/launcher/bash
/home/vermaden/.local/share/broot/launcher/bash/1

As I use ZSH shell it also updates my ~/.zshrc file.

% tail -3 ~/.zshrc

source /home/vermaden/.config/broot/launcher/bash/br

Finished. You now have broot installed and ready to use.

broot-filter-bhyve.jpg

UPDATE 1 – Now No Patches Are Needed

Thanks to the broot author any patches are now not needed.

It builds and works out of the box.

broot-update-fixed

UPDATE 2 – Its in Ports/Packages Now

The broot file manager is now available via usual FreeBSD Ports and packages which makes this guide pointless πŸ™‚

Its available as misc/broot port.

EOF

Β 

FreeBSD Desktop – Part 20 – Configuration – Unlock Your Laptop with Phone

I really do not like the smart card ecosystem – probably because it will be a big PITA to setup such subsystem on FreeBSD to make it lock/unlock my laptop with a smart card – not to mention of it will be even possible because of probable lack of drivers for a laptop builtin smart card reader. I mention it because you can lock and unlock your laptop with such smart card in very fast way.

Some people use finger prints readers (for fast workstation/laptop unlock purpose) – but its the same case scenario as with smart card – the time needed to setup it properly. Not to mention that is not that fast anyway as I often see my colleagues swinging the finger over the fingerprint reader over and over again so it will finally work the 7th time …

… but you wan also lock and unlock your UNIX laptop with your phone – by just attaching it to your device – this is where the FreeBSD’s devd(8) subsystem come handy.

Today I will show you how to lock/unlock your laptop with your phone.

You may want to check other articles in the FreeBSD Desktop series on the FreeBSD Desktop – Global Page where you will find links to all episodes of the series along with table of contents for each episode’s contents.

Keep in mind that in order to make it work you need to attach the phone to laptop using cable that supports data transfer – it will not work with cables that only provide power for charging your phone.

Device Detection

First we need to detect what device will be your locker/unlocker.

Stop the devd(8) daemon.

# service devd stop
Stopping devd.
Waiting for PIDS: 71455.

Now start it in ‘foreground’ for debug purposes and then attach your phone. The command below with grep(1) will help you to find needed information.

# devd -d 2>&1 | grep --line-buffered 'Processing event' | grep --line-buffered DEVICE
Processing event '!system=USB subsystem=DEVICE type=ATTACH ugen=ugen2.3 cdev=ugen2.3 vendor=0x04e8 product=0x6860 devclass=0x00 devsubclass=0x00 sernum="31000e243eb5a12e" release=0x0400 mode=host port=2 parent=ugen2.2'

I have highlited the needed information.

Do not stop this process yet.

Now you know which device will be your locker/unlocker and what even the devd(8) daemon gets when you attach your phone.

Things to note hare are:

vendor=0x04e8
product=0x6860
sernum=31000e243eb5a12e

This data above is more then enough to unlock your workstation.

Now detach your phone from the computer. You will see the DETACH even similar to the one below.

Processing event '!system=USB subsystem=DEVICE type=DETACH ugen=ugen2.3 cdev=ugen2.3 vendor=0x04e8 product=0x6860 devclass=0x00 devsubclass=0x00 sernum="31000e243eb5a12e" release=0x0400 mode=host port=2 parent=ugen2.2'

Now you know the event that will be spawned when you detach your phone.

Stop the foreground devd(8) daemon and start the service traditionally.

# devd -d 2>&1 | grep --line-buffered 'Processing event' | grep --line-buffered DEVICE
Processing event '!system=USB subsystem=DEVICE type=ATTACH ugen=ugen2.3 cdev=ugen2.3 vendor=0x04e8 product=0x6860 devclass=0x00 devsubclass=0x00 sernum="31000e243eb5a12e" release=0x0400 mode=host port=2 parent=ugen2.2'
Processing event '!system=USB subsystem=DEVICE type=DETACH ugen=ugen2.3 cdev=ugen2.3 vendor=0x04e8 product=0x6860 devclass=0x00 devsubclass=0x00 sernum="31000e243eb5a12e" release=0x0400 mode=host port=2 parent=ugen2.2'
^C
# service devd start
Starting devd.

Commands for Events

Now, what action or command should be executed when you attach or detach your phone? That depends on which screen locker you are using on your X11 setup.

I for example use the mate-screensaver for this purpose.

The ATTACH event in my case would be to kill the current process mate-screensaver which will unlock the screen and then start it again for the next lock purposes – below is the command that I will run for the ATTACH event.

pkill -9 mate-screensaver && su -l vermaden -c 'env DISPLAY=:0 mate-screensaver' &

The DETACH event will be notifying the mate-screensaver to lock the screen – here is the command that will be used for that purpose.

su -l vermaden -c 'env DISPLAY=:0 mate-screensaver-command --lock' &

Implementation

Here is how the devd(8) config file for my phone would look like.

# cat /usr/local/etc/devd/phonelock.conf

# PHONE ATTACH - UNLOCK
notify 100 {
    match "system" "USB";
    match "subsystem" "DEVICE";
    match "type" "ATTACH";
    match "vendor" "0x04e8";
    match "product" "0x6860";
    match "sernum" "31000e243eb5a12e";
    action "pkill -9 mate-screensaver && su -l vermaden -c 'env DISPLAY=:0 mate-screensaver' &";
};

# PHONE DETACH - LOCK
notify 100 {
    match "system" "USB";
    match "subsystem" "DEVICE";
    match "type" "DETACH";
    match "vendor" "0x04e8";
    match "product" "0x6860";
    match "sernum" "31000e243eb5a12e";
    action "su -l vermaden -c 'env DISPLAY=:0 mate-screensaver-command --lock' &";
};

Now restart the devd(8) daemon so it will read new configuration files.

# service devd restart
Stopping devd.
Waiting for PIDS: 1458.
Starting devd.

Viola! Now you can lock and unlock your screen just by attaching or detaching your phone. I do not have any fancy video on how it behaves but you must trust me that is less then a second to lock and unlock the laptop now – be sure to keep and additional eye on your phone now, as it can unlock the access to all your files now πŸ™‚

You can of course use any USB device or even network actions – any event that is supported by the devd(8) daemon.

You can of course create such lock/unlock config when you attach/detach your phone and additionally configure power down action when you detach other USB device.

I forgot to mention it, that method does not disables the ‘classic’ password authentication – it just adds automatic screen lock/unlock when you attach your phone – you can still login (unlock) using just password on the mate-screensaver lock screen.

UPDATE 1 – Better devd Sniffing – Better Unlock Method

As oh5nxo from Reddit suggested its not needed to stop devd and start it in ‘debug’ mode – its easier just to attach to its ‘pipe’ with nc(1) tool.

# nc -U /var/run/devd.pipe

There is also no need to kill(1) the mate-screensaver command, its more elegant to just send the mate-screensaver-command --unlock command.

Below is the updated /usr/local/etc/devd/phonelock.conf config file for the devd(8) daemon.

# cat /usr/local/etc/devd/phonelock.conf

# PHONE ATTACH - UNLOCK
notify 100 {
    match "system" "USB";
    match "subsystem" "DEVICE";
    match "type" "ATTACH";
    match "vendor" "0x04e8";
    match "product" "0x6860";
    match "sernum" "33000e343fb4a42d";
    action "su -l vermaden -c 'env DISPLAY=:0 mate-screensaver-command --unlock' &";
};

# PHONE DETACH - LOCK
notify 100 {
    match "system" "USB";
    match "subsystem" "DEVICE";
    match "type" "DETACH";
    match "vendor" "0x04e8";
    match "product" "0x6860";
    match "sernum" "33000e343fb4a42d";
    action "su -l vermaden -c 'env DISPLAY=:0 mate-screensaver-command --lock' &";
};

EOF

Nextcloud 17 on FreeBSD 12.1

Not so long ago – almost 2 years from now – I wrote about setting up Nextcloud 13 on FreeBSD.

Today Nextcloud is at 17 version and the configuration that worked two years ago requires some tweaks.

nextcloud-logo.png

This guide will not cover the same information that is available in earlier Nextcloud 13 on FreeBSD article like settings to run Nextcloud inside FreeBSD Jail. Please refer to that earpier article for these settings.

Today we will use these as backends for Nextcloud 17.

  • PostgreSQL 12
  • PHP 7.3
  • Nginx 1.14 (with php-fpm)
  • Memcached 1.5.19

As Nextcloud in FreeBSD packages comes with MySQL and without PostgreSQL support we will need to build it from source using FreeBSD Ports.

Settings

Let’s fetch the latest FreeBSD Ports tree.

# rm -r /var/db/portsnap
# mkdir /var/db/portsnap
# portsnap auto

Now we need to configure needed options in the /etc/make.conf file.

# cat /etc/make.conf
WRKDIRPREFIX=${PORTSDIR}/obj
DEFAULT_VERSIONS+= php=7.3
DEFAULT_VERSIONS+= pgsql=12
OPTIONS_UNSET+=    MYSQL
OPTIONS_SET+=      PGSQL
OPTIONS_SET+=      IMAGICK
OPTIONS_SET+=      PCNTL
OPTIONS_SET+=      SMB
OPTIONS_SET+=      REDIS


Packages and Ports

First we will add some basic tools and things like PostgreSQL still using FreeBSD packages to save tome time instead of compiling them.

# pkg install \
    sudo \
    portmaster \
    beadm \
    lsblk \
    postgresql12-client \
    postgresql12-server \
    nginx \
    memcached \
    php73-pecl-memcached


Now we will compile Nextcloud and its dependencies using FreeBSD Ports – but with portmaster.

# env BATCH=yes portmaster \
    databases/php73-pdo_pgsql \
    databases/php73-pgsql \
    www/nextcloud 

PostgreSQL

We will now configure the FreeBSD’s Login Class for PostgreSQL database in the /etc/login.conf file.

# cat  /etc/login.conf

postgres:\
        :lang=en_US.UTF-8:\
        :setenv=LC_COLLATE=C:\
        :tc=default:

EOF

# cap_mkdb /etc/login.conf

… and PostgreSQL settings in main FreeBSD’s configuration /etc/rc.conf file.

# grep postgresql /etc/rc.conf
postgresql_enable=YES
postgresql_class=postgres
postgresql_data=/var/db/postgres/data12

Let’s initialize the PostgreSQL database.

# /usr/local/etc/rc.d/postgresql initdb
The files belonging to this database system will be owned by user "postgres".
This user must also own the server process.

The database cluster will be initialized with locales
  COLLATE:  C
  CTYPE:    en_US.UTF-8
  MESSAGES: en_US.UTF-8
  MONETARY: en_US.UTF-8
  NUMERIC:  en_US.UTF-8
  TIME:     en_US.UTF-8
The default text search configuration will be set to "english".

Data page checksums are disabled.

fixing permissions on existing directory /var/db/postgres/data12 ... ok
creating subdirectories ... ok
selecting dynamic shared memory implementation ... posix
selecting default max_connections ... 100
selecting default shared_buffers ... 128MB
selecting default time zone ... Europe/Warsaw
creating configuration files ... ok
running bootstrap script ... ok
performing post-bootstrap initialization ... ok
syncing data to disk ... ok

initdb: warning: enabling "trust" authentication for local connections
You can change this by editing pg_hba.conf or using the option -A, or
--auth-local and --auth-host, the next time you run initdb.

Success. You can now start the database server using:

    /usr/local/bin/pg_ctl -D /var/db/postgres/data12 -l logfile start


As PostgreSQL database uses 8k blocks let’s set it in ZFS. We could of course create dedicated dataset for this purpose if needed.

# zfs set recordsize=8k zroot/ROOT/default

Now, let’s start the PostgreSQL database.

# /usr/local/etc/rc.d/postgresql start
2019-12-31 11:47:04.918 CET [36089] LOG:  starting PostgreSQL 12.1 on amd64-portbld-freebsd12.0, compiled by FreeBSD clang version 6.0.1 (tags/RELEASE_601/final 335540) (based on LLVM 6.0.1), 64-bit
2019-12-31 11:47:04.918 CET [36089] LOG:  listening on IPv6 address "::1", port 5432
2019-12-31 11:47:04.918 CET [36089] LOG:  listening on IPv4 address "127.0.0.1", port 5432
2019-12-31 11:47:04.919 CET [36089] LOG:  listening on Unix socket "/tmp/.s.PGSQL.5432"
2019-12-31 11:47:04.928 CET [36089] LOG:  ending log output to stderr
2019-12-31 11:47:04.928 CET [36089] HINT:  Future log output will go to log destination "syslog".

We will now create PostgreSQL database for our Nextcloud instance.

# psql -hlocalhost -Upostgres
psql (12.1)
Type "help" for help.

postgres=# CREATE USER nextcloud WITH PASSWORD 'NEXTCLOUD_DB_PASSWORD';
CREATE ROLE
postgres=# CREATE DATABASE nextcloud TEMPLATE template0 ENCODING 'UNICODE';
CREATE DATABASE
postgres=# ALTER DATABASE nextcloud OWNER TO nextcloud;
ALTER DATABASE
postgres=# \q

Keep in mind to put something more sophisticated in the NEXTCLOUD_DB_PASSWORD place.

PostgreSQL Cleanup and Indexing Script

Lets automate some PostgreSQL housekeeping.

# mkdir -p /var/db/postgres/bin
# chown postgres /var/db/postgres/bin
# vi /var/db/postgres/bin/vacuum.sh

#! /bin/sh

/usr/local/bin/vacuumdb -az 1> /dev/null 2> /dev/null
/usr/local/bin/reindexdb -a 1> /dev/null 2> /dev/null
/usr/local/bin/reindexdb -s 1> /dev/null 2> /dev/null
:wq

# cat /var/db/postgres/bin/vacuum.sh
#! /bin/sh

/usr/local/bin/vacuumdb -az 1> /dev/null 2> /dev/null
/usr/local/bin/reindexdb -a 1> /dev/null 2> /dev/null
/usr/local/bin/reindexdb -s 1> /dev/null 2> /dev/null

# chown postgres /var/db/postgres/bin/vacuum.sh
# chmod +x /var/db/postgres/bin/vacuum.sh

# su - postgres -c 'crontab -e'
0 0 * * * /var/db/postgres/bin/vacuum.sh
:wq
/tmp/crontab.JMg5BfT5HV: 2 lines, 42 characters.
crontab: installing new crontab

# su - postgres -c 'crontab -l'
0 0 * * * /var/db/postgres/bin/vacuum.sh

# su - postgres -c '/var/db/postgres/bin/vacuum.sh'

Nginx

Now its time for Nginx webserver.

# chown -R www:www /var/log/nginx

# ls -l /var/log/nginx
total 3
-rw-r-----  1 www  www   64 2019.12.31 00:00 access.log
-rw-r-----  1 www  www  133 2019.12.31 00:00 access.log.0.bz2
-rw-r-----  1 www  www   64 2019.12.31 00:00 error.log
-rw-r-----  1 www  www  133 2019.12.31 00:00 error.log.0.bz2

… and its main nginx.conf configuration file.

# cat /usr/local/etc/nginx/nginx.conf
user www;
worker_processes 4;
worker_rlimit_nofile 51200;
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;

events {
  worker_connections 1024;
}

http {
  include mime.types;
  default_type application/octet-stream;
  log_format main '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" ';
  access_log /var/log/nginx/access.log main;
  sendfile on;
  keepalive_timeout 65;

  upstream php-handler {
    server 127.0.0.1:9000;
  }

  server {
    # ENFORCE HTTPS
    listen 80;
    server_name nextcloud.domain.com;
    return 301 https://$server_name$request_uri;
  }

  server {
    listen 443 ssl http2;
    server_name nextcloud.domain.com;
    ssl_certificate /usr/local/etc/nginx/ssl/ssl-bundle.crt;
    ssl_certificate_key /usr/local/etc/nginx/ssl/server.key;

    # HEADERS SECURITY RELATED
    add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15768000; includeSubDomains; preload;";
    add_header Referrer-Policy "no-referrer";

    # HEADERS
    add_header X-Content-Type-Options nosniff;
    add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block";
    add_header X-Robots-Tag none;
    add_header X-Download-Options noopen;
    add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies none;

    # PATH TO THE ROOT OF YOUR INSTALLATION
    root /usr/local/www/nextcloud/;

    location = /robots.txt {
      allow all;
      log_not_found off;
      access_log off;
    }

    location = /.well-known/carddav {
      return 301 $scheme://$host/remote.php/dav;
    }

    location = /.well-known/caldav {
      return 301 $scheme://$host/remote.php/dav;
    }

    # BUFFERS TIMEOUTS UPLOAD SIZES
    client_max_body_size 16400M;
    client_body_buffer_size 1048576k;
    send_timeout 3000;

    # ENABLE GZIP BUT DO NOT REMOVE ETag HEADERS
    gzip on;
    gzip_vary on;
    gzip_comp_level 4;
    gzip_min_length 256;
    gzip_proxied expired no-cache no-store private no_last_modified no_etag auth;
    gzip_types application/atom+xml application/javascript application/json application/ld+json application/manifest+json application/rss+xml application/vnd.geo+json application/vnd.ms-fontobject application/x-font-ttf application/x-web-app-manifest+json application/xhtml+xml application/xml font/opentype image/bmp image/svg+xml image/x-icon text/cache-manifest text/css text/plain text/vcard text/vnd.rim.location.xloc text/vtt text/x-component text/x-cross-domain-policy;

    location / {
      rewrite ^ /index.php$request_uri;
    }

    location ~ ^/(?:build|tests|config|lib|3rdparty|templates|data)/ {
      deny all;
    }

    location ~ ^/(?:\.|autotest|occ|issue|indie|db_|console) {
      deny all;
    }

    location ~ ^\/(?:index|remote|public|cron|core\/ajax\/update|status|ocs\/v[12]|updater\/.+|oc[ms]-provider\/.+)\.php(?:$|\/) {
      fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.*)$;
      include fastcgi_params;
      fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
      fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_path_info;
      fastcgi_param HTTPS on;
      fastcgi_param modHeadersAvailable true;
      fastcgi_param front_controller_active true;
      fastcgi_pass php-handler;
      fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
      fastcgi_request_buffering off;
      fastcgi_keep_conn off;
      fastcgi_buffers 16 256K;
      fastcgi_buffer_size 256k;
      fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 256k;
      fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 256k;
      fastcgi_send_timeout 3000s;
      fastcgi_read_timeout 3000s;
      fastcgi_connect_timeout 3000s;
    }

    location ~ ^\/(?:updater|oc[ms]-provider)(?:$|\/) {
      try_files $uri/ =404;
      index index.php;
    }

    # ADDING THE CACHE CONTROL HEADER FOR JS AND CSS FILES
    # MAKE SURE IT IS BELOW PHP BLOCK
    location ~ \.(?:css|js|woff2?|svg|gif)$ {
      try_files $uri /index.php$uri$is_args$args;
      add_header Cache-Control "public, max-age=15778463";
      # HEADERS SECURITY RELATED
      # IT IS INTENDED TO HAVE THOSE DUPLICATED TO ONES ABOVE
      add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=15768000; includeSubDomains; preload;";
      # HEADERS
      add_header X-Content-Type-Options nosniff;
      add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block";
      add_header X-Robots-Tag none;
      add_header X-Download-Options noopen;
      add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies none;
      # OPTIONAL: DONT LOG ACCESS TO ASSETS
      access_log off;
    }

    location ~ \.(?:png|html|ttf|ico|jpg|jpeg)$ {
      try_files $uri /index.php$uri$is_args$args;
      # OPTIONAL: DONT LOG ACCESS TO OTHER ASSETS
      access_log off;
    }
  }
}

OpenSSL HTTPS Certificates

We will generate a certificates needed for HTTPS service for Nextcloud.

# mkdir -p /usr/local/etc/nginx/ssl

# cd /usr/local/etc/nginx/ssl

# openssl genrsa -des3 -out server.key 2048
Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus (2 primes)
............+++++
....+++++
e is 65537 (0x010001)
Enter pass phrase for server.key: SERVER_KEY_PASSWORD
Verifying - Enter pass phrase for server.key: SERVER_KEY_PASSWORD

As usual use something more sensible then SERVER_KEY_PASSWORD string here πŸ™‚

# openssl req -new -key server.key -out server.csr
Enter pass phrase for server.key:
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:PL
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:lodzkie
Locality Name (eg, city) []:Lodz
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:Vermaden Enterprises Ltd.
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:IT Department
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []:nextcloud.domain.com
Email Address []:vermaden@interia.pl

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:
An optional company name []:


# cp server.key server.key.orig

# openssl rsa -in server.key.orig -out server.key
Enter pass phrase for server.key.orig: SERVER_KEY_PASSWORD
writing RSA key

# ls -l /usr/local/etc/nginx/ssl
total 7
-rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel  1151 2019.12.31 12:39 server.csr
-rw-------  1 root  wheel  1679 2019.12.31 12:41 server.key
-rw-------  1 root  wheel  1751 2019.12.31 12:40 server.key.orig

# openssl x509 -req -days 7000 -in server.csr -signkey server.key -out server.crt
Signature ok
subject=C = PL, ST = lodzkie, L = Lodz, O = Vermaden Enterprises Ltd., OU = IT Department, CN = nextcloud.domain.com, emailAddress = vermaden@interia.pl
Getting Private key

# ln -s /usr/local/etc/nginx/ssl/server.crt /usr/local/etc/nginx/ssl/ssl-bundle.crt

PHP

Here is the used PHP configuration with up to 16GB files for Nextcloud.

# grep '^[^;]' /usr/local/etc/php.ini
[PHP]
max_input_time=3600
engine = On
short_open_tag = On
precision = 14
output_buffering = OFF
zlib.output_compression = Off
implicit_flush = Off
unserialize_callback_func =
serialize_precision = 17
disable_functions =
disable_classes =
zend.enable_gc = On
expose_php = On
max_execution_time = 3600
max_input_time = 30000
memory_limit = 1024M
error_reporting = E_ALL & ~E_DEPRECATED & ~E_STRICT
display_errors = Off
display_startup_errors = Off
log_errors = On
log_errors_max_len = 1024
ignore_repeated_errors = Off
ignore_repeated_source = Off
report_memleaks = On
track_errors = Off
html_errors = On
error_log = /var/log/php.log
variables_order = "GPCS"
request_order = "GP"
register_argc_argv = Off
auto_globals_jit = On
post_max_size = 16400M
auto_prepend_file =
auto_append_file =
default_mimetype = "text/html"
default_charset = "UTF-8"
doc_root =
user_dir =
enable_dl = Off
file_uploads = On
upload_max_filesize = 16400M
max_file_uploads = 64
allow_url_fopen = On
allow_url_include = Off
default_socket_timeout = 300
[CLI Server]
cli_server.color = On
[Date]
date.timezone = Europe/Warsaw
[filter]
[iconv]
[intl]
[sqlite3]
[Pcre]
[Pdo]
[Pdo_mysql]
pdo_mysql.cache_size = 2000
pdo_mysql.default_socket=
[Phar]
[mail function]
SMTP = localhost
smtp_port = 25
mail.add_x_header = On
[SQL]
sql.safe_mode = Off
[ODBC]
odbc.allow_persistent = On
odbc.check_persistent = On
odbc.max_persistent = -1
odbc.max_links = -1
odbc.defaultlrl = 4096
odbc.defaultbinmode = 1
[Interbase]
ibase.allow_persistent = 1
ibase.max_persistent = -1
ibase.max_links = -1
ibase.timestampformat = "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"
ibase.dateformat = "%Y-%m-%d"
ibase.timeformat = "%H:%M:%S"
[MySQLi]
mysqli.max_persistent = -1
mysqli.allow_persistent = On
mysqli.max_links = -1
mysqli.cache_size = 2000
mysqli.default_port = 3306
mysqli.default_socket =
mysqli.default_host =
mysqli.default_user =
mysqli.default_pw =
mysqli.reconnect = Off
[mysqlnd]
mysqlnd.collect_statistics = On
mysqlnd.collect_memory_statistics = Off
[OCI8]
[PostgreSQL]
pgsql.allow_persistent = On
pgsql.auto_reset_persistent = Off
pgsql.max_persistent = -1
pgsql.max_links = -1
pgsql.ignore_notice = 0
pgsql.log_notice = 0
[bcmath]
bcmath.scale = 0
[browscap]
[Session]
session.save_handler = files
session.save_path = "/tmp"
session.use_strict_mode = 0
session.use_cookies = 1
session.use_only_cookies = 1
session.name = PHPSESSID
session.auto_start = 0
session.cookie_lifetime = 0
session.cookie_path = /
session.cookie_domain =
session.cookie_httponly =
session.serialize_handler = php
session.gc_probability = 1
session.gc_divisor = 1000
session.gc_maxlifetime = 1440
session.referer_check =
session.cache_limiter = nocache
session.cache_expire = 180
session.use_trans_sid = 0
session.hash_function = 0
session.hash_bits_per_character = 5
url_rewriter.tags = "a=href,area=href,frame=src,input=src,form=fakeentry"
[Assertion]
zend.assertions = -1
[COM]
[mbstring]
[gd]
[exif]
[Tidy]
tidy.clean_output = Off
[soap]
soap.wsdl_cache_enabled=1
soap.wsdl_cache_dir="/tmp"
soap.wsdl_cache_ttl=86400
soap.wsdl_cache_limit = 5
[sysvshm]
[ldap]
ldap.max_links = -1
[mcrypt]
[dba]
[opcache]
opcache.enable=1
opcache.enable_cli=1
opcache.interned_strings_buffer=8
opcache.max_accelerated_files=10000
opcache.memory_consumption=128
opcache.save_comments=1
opcache.revalidate_freq=1
[curl]
[openssl] 

PHP PostgreSQL Database Settings

Below are needed to make PHP work with PostgreSQL database.

# cat /usr/local/etc/php/ext-20-pgsql.ini
extension=pgsql.so

# cat  /usr/local/etc/php/ext-20-pgsql.ini

[PostgresSQL]
pgsql.allow_persistent = On
pgsql.auto_reset_persistent = Off
pgsql.max_persistent = -1
pgsql.max_links = -1
pgsql.ignore_notice = 0
pgsql.log_notice = 0
EOF

# cat /usr/local/etc/php/ext-20-pgsql.ini
extension=pgsql.so

[PostgresSQL]
pgsql.allow_persistent = On
pgsql.auto_reset_persistent = Off
pgsql.max_persistent = -1
pgsql.max_links = -1
pgsql.ignore_notice = 0
pgsql.log_notice = 0


… and the second one.

# cat /usr/local/etc/php/ext-30-pdo_pgsql.ini
extension=pdo_pgsql.so

# cat  /usr/local/etc/php/ext-30-pdo_pgsql.ini

[PostgresSQL]
pgsql.allow_persistent = On
pgsql.auto_reset_persistent = Off
pgsql.max_persistent = -1
pgsql.max_links = -1
pgsql.ignore_notice = 0
pgsql.log_notice = 0
EOF

# cat /usr/local/etc/php/ext-30-pdo_pgsql.ini
extension=pdo_pgsql.so

[PostgresSQL]
pgsql.allow_persistent = On
pgsql.auto_reset_persistent = Off
pgsql.max_persistent = -1
pgsql.max_links = -1
pgsql.ignore_notice = 0
pgsql.log_notice = 0

PHP FPM

Now the PHP FPM daemon.

# grep '^[^;]' /usr/local/etc/php-fpm.conf
[global]
pid = run/php-fpm.pid
error_log = log/php-fpm.log
syslog.facility = daemon
include=/usr/local/etc/php-fpm.d/*.conf

# touch /var/log/php-fpm.log

# chown www:www /var/log/php-fpm.log

# grep '^[^;]' /usr/local/etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf
[www]
user = www
group = www
listen = 127.0.0.1:9000
listen.backlog = -1
listen.owner = www
listen.group = www
listen.mode = 0660
listen.allowed_clients = 127.0.0.1
pm = static
pm.max_children = 8
pm.start_servers = 4
pm.min_spare_servers = 4
pm.max_spare_servers = 32
pm.process_idle_timeout = 1000s;
pm.max_requests = 500
request_terminate_timeout = 0
rlimit_files = 51200
env[HOSTNAME] = $HOSTNAME
env[PATH] = /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin
env[TMP] = /tmp
env[TMPDIR] = /tmp
env[TEMP] = /tmp

Start Backend Services

We will now start all ‘backend’ services needed for Nextcloud.

# service postgresql start
2020-01-02 13:18:05.970 CET [52233] LOG:  starting PostgreSQL 12.1 on amd64-portbld-freebsd12.0, compiled by FreeBSD clang version 6.0.1 (tags/RELEASE_601/final 335540) (based on LLVM 6.0.1), 64-bit
2020-01-02 13:18:05.974 CET [52233] LOG:  listening on IPv6 address "::1", port 5432
2020-01-02 13:18:05.974 CET [52233] LOG:  listening on IPv4 address "127.0.0.1", port 5432
2020-01-02 13:18:05.975 CET [52233] LOG:  listening on Unix socket "/tmp/.s.PGSQL.5432"
2020-01-02 13:18:06.024 CET [52233] LOG:  ending log output to stderr
2020-01-02 13:18:06.024 CET [52233] HINT:  Future log output will go to log destination "syslog".

# service postgresql status
pg_ctl: server is running (PID: 36089)
/usr/local/bin/postgres "-D" "/var/db/postgres/data12"

# service php-fpm start
Performing sanity check on php-fpm configuration:
[02-Jan-2020 13:16:50] NOTICE: configuration file /usr/local/etc/php-fpm.conf test is successful

Starting php_fpm.

# service php-fpm status
php_fpm is running as pid 52193.

# service memcached start
Starting memcached.

# service memcached status
memcached is running as pid 52273.

# service nginx start
Performing sanity check on nginx configuration:
nginx: the configuration file /usr/local/etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /usr/local/etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful
Starting nginx.

Nextcloud Configuration

I created a link named /data to the Nextcloud data directory located at /usr/local/www/nextcloud/data place.

# ln -s /usr/local/www/nextcloud/data /data

The we use Firefox or other web browser to finish the Nextcloud configuration.

Type https://1.2.3.4 in the browser where 1.2.3.4 is your Nextcloud instance IP address.

I am sorry but the following image is in the Polish language – I forgot to change it to English … but I assume you will what to put in these fields by context.

nextcloud-setup.png

After we finish the setup we go straight to Nextcloud Overview page at https://1.2.3.4/settings/admin/serverinfoto page to see what else needs to be taken care of.

nextcloud-setup-overview.png

Two issues needs to be addressed. One is about Nginx configuration, the other is about PostgreSQL, let’s fix them.

We will add needed header to the Nginx configuration file.

# diff -u /usr/local/etc/nginx/nginx.conf.OLD /usr/local/etc/nginx/nginx.conf
--- /usr/local/etc/nginx/nginx.conf.OLD  2020-01-02 14:21:58.359398000 +0100
+++ /usr/local/etc/nginx/nginx.conf      2020-01-02 14:21:42.823426000 +0100
@@ -46,6 +46,7 @@
     add_header X-Robots-Tag none;
     add_header X-Download-Options noopen;
     add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies none;
+    add_header X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN";

     # PATH TO THE ROOT OF YOUR INSTALLATION
     root /usr/local/www/nextcloud/;

# service nginx reload
Performing sanity check on nginx configuration:
nginx: the configuration file /usr/local/etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /usr/local/etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful

… and update the PostgreSQL convertion.

# sudo -u www /usr/local/bin/php /usr/local/www/nextcloud/occ db:convert-filecache-bigint
Following columns will be updated:

* mounts.storage_id
* mounts.root_id
* mounts.mount_id

This can take up to hours, depending on the number of files in your instance!
Continue with the conversion (y/n)? [n] y

Viola! Both of our problems are gone now.

nextcloud-setup-overview-fixed.png

Trusted Domains

When you will enter the Nextcloud using different domain you will get a warning about that.

To add new Trusted Domain to the Nextcloud config do the following.

Here is how it looks before changes.

# grep -A 3 trusted /usr/local/www/nextcloud/config/config.php
  'trusted_domains' =>
  array (
    0 => '1.2.3.4',
  ),

We will now add nextcloud.domain.com domain.

# vi /usr/local/www/nextcloud/config/config.php

# grep -A 4 trusted /usr/local/www/nextcloud/config/config.php
  'trusted_domains' =>
  array (
    0 => '1.2.3.4',
    1 => 'nextcloud.domain.com',
  ),

You can of course add more with successive numbers.

# grep -A 5 trusted /usr/local/www/nextcloud/config/config.php
  'trusted_domains' =>
  array (
    0 => '1.2.3.4',
    1 => 'nextcloud.domain.com',
    2 => 'cloud.domain.com',
  ),

This is the end of this guide. Feel free to share your thougths πŸ™‚

Log Rotation with Newsyslog

Newsyslog is part of FreeBSD’s base system. We will add Nextcloud and backend daemons log files to Newsyslog configuration so they will be rotated.

 
# cat  /etc/newsyslog.conf
/data/nextcloud.log                          www:www     640  7     *    @T00  JC
/usr/local/www/nextcloud/data/nextcloud.log  www:www     640  7     *    @T00  JC
/var/log/php-fpm.log                         www:www     640  7     *    @T00  JC
/var/log/nginx/error.log                     www:www     640  7     *    @T00  JC
/var/log/nginx/access.log                    www:www     640  7     *    @T00  JC
EOF

Now you will not run out of free space when logs will grow in time.

EOF

Β 

FreeBSD Desktop – Part 19 – Configuration – Plank – Skippy-XD

Long time no see :). In this article of the FreeBSD Desktop series we will add Plank and Skippy-XD to the existing setup.

I will share with You Plank configuration along with theme that fits to the rest of the setup. Plank is an open implementation of the ideas that was brought to life by Mac OS X (macOS) Dock. We will also add Skippy-XD tool that implements Mac OS X (macOS) Expose ideas.

One my ask why use Plank while we already have Tint2 for similar purposes? While both support autohide I prefer to see Tint2 all the time to get basic/fast idea about what is launched on which desktop and have Plank hidden as it does not hurt and sometimes helps.

Here is both Mac OS X (macOS) Dock and Expose in action.

macosx-dock-expose.jpg

You may want to check other articles in the FreeBSD Desktop series on the FreeBSD Desktop – Global Page where you will find links to all episodes of the series along with table of contents for each episode’s contents.

To install both Plank and Skippy-XD on FreeBSD just use the default packages as shown below.

# pkg install skippy-xd plank

Plank

Here is how Plank dock composes with the rest of the setup.

shot-res-small

The Plank dock comes with graphical preferences window if needed but you need to launch it from the command line as plank --preferences command.

plank-prefs.jpg

Here is the used Plank theme which is kept in the ~/.local/share/plank/themes/vermaden/dock.theme file.


% grep '^[^#]' ~/.local/share/plank/themes/vermaden/dock.theme

[PlankTheme]
TopRoundness=0
BottomRoundness=0
LineWidth=0
OuterStrokeColor=0;;0;;0;;255
FillStartColor=40;;40;;40;;255
FillEndColor=40;;40;;40;;255
InnerStrokeColor=40;;40;;40;;255

[PlankDockTheme]
HorizPadding=0
TopPadding=1
BottomPadding=2
ItemPadding=2.5
IndicatorSize=10
IconShadowSize=0
UrgentBounceHeight=0
LaunchBounceHeight=0
FadeOpacity=0
ClickTime=300
UrgentBounceTime=600
LaunchBounceTime=600
ActiveTime=300
SlideTime=300
FadeTime=250
HideTime=150
GlowSize=24
GlowTime=10000
GlowPulseTime=2000
UrgentHueShift=150
ItemMoveTime=150
CascadeHide=true

[PlankDrawingDockTheme]
HorizPadding=0
ItemPadding=2.5
CascadeHide=true

And here are mine Plank dock settings which are kept in the ~/.config/plank/dock1/settings file.


% grep '^[^#]' ~/.config/plank/dock1/settings

[PlankDockPreferences]
CurrentWorkspaceOnly=false
IconSize=32
HideMode=0
UnhideDelay=0
HideDelay=0
Monitor=DP-1
DockItems=caja.dockitem;;leafpad.dockitem;;firefox.dockitem;;geany.dockitem;;thunderbird.dockitem;;galculator.dockitem;;deadbeef.dockitem;;transmission-gtk.dockitem;;pidgin.dockitem
Position=3
Offset=20
Theme=vermaden
Alignment=3
ItemsAlignment=3
LockItems=false
PressureReveal=false
PinnedOnly=false
AutoPinning=true
ShowDockItem=true
ZoomEnabled=false
ZoomPercent=150


Skippy-XD

You may wonder why the XD in the Skippy name. Its because Skippy started as a pure software solution – which unfortunately was quite slow – especially in the times when Skippy was introduced, and it was about a decade ago. Then Skippy developers rewrote it to use the – new then XDAMAGE module for X11 – from this change Skippy started to work almost instantly – and this was marked in its name and it remains to this date as Skippy-XD.

This is how Skippy-XD looks like.

skippy-xd.jpg

The Skippy-XD does not need/support themes – it just has a configuration file located at ~/.config/skippy-xd/skippy-xd.rc place.


% grep '^[^#]' ~/.config/skippy-xd/skippy-xd.rc

[general]
distance = 50
useNetWMFullscreen = true
ignoreSkipTaskbar = true
updateFreq = 30.0
lazyTrans = true
pipePath = /tmp/skippy-xd-fifo
movePointerOnStart = true
movePointerOnSelect = true
movePointerOnRaise = true
switchDesktopOnActivate = true
useNameWindowPixmap = false
forceNameWindowPixmap = false
includeFrame = true
allowUpscale = true
showAllDesktops = true
showUnmapped = true
preferredIconSize = 32
clientDisplayModes = thumbnail icon filled none
iconFillSpec = orig mid mid #666666
fillSpec = orig mid mid #FFFFFF
background =

[xinerama]
showAll = true

[normal]
tint = black
tintOpacity = 0
opacity = 200

[highlight]
tint = #202020
tintOpacity = 64
opacity = 255

[tooltip]
show = true
followsMouse = true
offsetX = 20
offsetY = 20
align = left
border = #111111
background = #333333
opacity = 128
text = #eedddd
textShadow = none
font = ubuntu-10:weight=normal

[bindings]
miwMouse1 = focus
miwMouse2 = close-ewmh
miwMouse3 = iconify

One of the nice features of Skippy-XD is that you can configure it per desktop or globally per all currently existing virtual desktops. I also prefer to display window thumbnails only from the windows that exist on the current desktop. You can of course change that behavior with the Skippy-XD config file.

EOF

List Block Devices on FreeBSD lsblk(8) Style

When I have to work on Linux systems I usually miss many nice FreeBSD tools such as these for example to name the few:

  • sockstat
  • gstat
  • top -b -o res
  • top -m io -o total
  • usbconfig
  • rcorder
  • beadm/bectl
  • idprio/rtprio

… but sometimes – which rarely happens – Linux has some very useful tool that is not available on FreeBSD. An example of such tool is lsblk(8) that does one thing and does it quite well – lists block devices and their contents. It has some problems like listing a disk that is entirely used under ZFS pool on which lsblk(8) displays two partitions instead of information about ZFS just being there – but we all know how much in some circles the CDDL licensed ZFS is unloved in that GPL world.

Example lsblk(8) output from Linux system:

$ lsblk
NAME                         MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE   MOUNTPOINT
sr0                           11:0    1  1024M  0 rom
sda                            8:0    0 931.5G  0 disk
|-sda1                         8:1    0   500M  0 part   /boot
`-sda2                         8:2    0   931G  0 part
  |-vg_local-lv_root (dm-0)  253:0    0    50G  0 lvm    /
  |-vg_local-lv_swap (dm-1)  253:1    0  17.7G  0 lvm    [SWAP]
  `-vg_local-lv_home (dm-2)  253:2    0   1.8T  0 lvm    /home
sdc                            8:32   0 232.9G  0 disk
`-sdc1                         8:33   0 232.9G  0 part
  `-md1                        9:1    0 232.9G  0 raid10 /data
sdd                            8:48   0 232.9G  0 disk
`-sdd1                         8:49   0 232.9G  0 part
  `-md1                        9:1    0 232.9G  0 raid10 /data

What FreeBSD offers in this department? The camcontrol(8) and geom(8) commands are available. You can also use gpart(8) command to list partitions. Below you will find output of these commands from my single disk laptop. Please note that because of WordPress limitations I need to change all > < characters to ] [ ones in the commands outputs.

# camcontrol devlist
[Samsung SSD 860 EVO mSATA 1TB RVT41B6Q]  at scbus1 target 0 lun 0 (ada0,pass0)

% geom disk list
Geom name: ada0
Providers:
1. Name: ada0
   Mediasize: 1000204886016 (932G)
   Sectorsize: 512
   Mode: r1w1e2
   descr: Samsung SSD 860 EVO mSATA 1TB
   lunid: 5002538e402b4ddd
   ident: S41PNB0K303632D
   rotationrate: 0
   fwsectors: 63
   fwheads: 1

# gpart show
=>        40  1953525088  ada0  GPT  (932G)
          40      409600     1  efi  (200M)
      409640        1024     2  freebsd-boot  (512K)
      410664         984        - free -  (492K)
      411648  1953112064     3  freebsd-zfs  (931G)
  1953523712        1416        - free -  (708K)

They provide needed information in acceptable manner but only on systems with small amount of disks. What if you would like to display a summary of all system drives contents? This is where lsblk.sh comes handy. While lsblk(8) has many interesting features like --perms/--scsi/--inverse modes I focused to provide only the basic feature – to list the system block devices and their contents. As I have long and pleasing experience with writing shell scripts such as sysutils/beadm or sysutils/automount I though that writing lsblk.sh may be a good idea. I actually ‘open-sourced’ or should I say shared that project/idea in 2016 in this thread lsblk(8) Command for FreeBSD on FreeBSD Forums but lack of time really slowed that ‘side project’ development pace. I finally got back to it to finish it.

The lsblk.sh is generally small and simple shell script which tales less then 400 SLOC.

lsblk

Here is example output of lsblk.sh command from my single disk laptop.

% lsblk.sh
DEVICE         MAJ:MIN  SIZE TYPE                      LABEL MOUNT
ada0             0:5b  932G GPT                           - -
  ada0p1         0:64  200M efi                    efiboot0 [UNMOUNTED]
  ada0p2         0:65  512K freebsd-boot           gptboot0 -
  [FREE]         -:-   492K -                             - -
  ada0p3         0:66  931G freebsd-zfs                zfs0 [ZFS]
  [FREE]         -:-   708K -                             - -


Same output in graphical window.

lolcat

Below you will find an example lsblk.sh output from server with two system SSD drives (da0/da1) and two HDD data drives (da2/da3).

# lsblk.sh
DEVICE         MAJ:MIN SIZE TYPE                      LABEL MOUNT
da0              0:be  224G GPT                           - -
  da0p1          0:15a 200M efi                    efiboot0 [UNMOUNTED]
  da0p2          0:15b 512K freebsd-boot           gptboot0 -
  [FREE]         -:-   492K -                             - -
  da0p3          0:15c 2.0G freebsd-swap              swap0 [UNMOUNTED]
  da0p4          0:15d 221G freebsd-zfs                zfs0 [ZFS]
  [FREE]         -:-   580K -                             - -
da1              0:bf  224G GPT                           - -
  da1p1          0:16a 200M efi                    efiboot1 [UNMOUNTED]
  da1p2          0:16b 512K freebsd-boot           gptboot1 -
  [FREE]         -:-   492K -                             - -
  da1p3          0:16c 2.0G freebsd-swap              swap1 [UNMOUNTED]
  da1p4          0:16d 221G freebsd-zfs                zfs1 [ZFS]
  [FREE]         -:-   580K -                             - -
da2              0:c0   11T GPT                           - -
  da2p1          0:16e  11T freebsd-zfs                   - [ZFS]
  [FREE]         -:-   1.0G -                             - -
da3              0:c1   11T GPT                           - -
  da3p1          0:16f  11T freebsd-zfs                   - [ZFS]
  [FREE]         -:-   1.0G -                             - -

Below you will find other examples from other systems I have tested lsblk.sh on.

lsblk.examples

While lsblk.sh is not the fastest script on Earth (because of all the needed parsing) it does its job quite well. If you would like to install it in your system just type the command below:

# fetch -o /usr/local/bin/lsblk https://raw.githubusercontent.com/vermaden/scripts/master/lsblk.sh
# chmod +x /usr/local/bin/lsblk
# hash -r || rehash
# lsblk

If I got time which other original Linux lsblk(8) subcommand/option/argument is worth adding to the lsblk.sh script? πŸ™‚

Regards.

UPDATE 1 – Added USAGE/HELP Information

Just added some usage information that can be displayed by specifying one of these as argument:

  • h
  • -h
  • --h
  • help
  • -help
  • --help

IMHO writing man page for such simple utility is needless. I think I will create dedicated man page when lsblk.sh tool will grow in size and options to comparable with the Linux lsblk(8) equivalent. Here is how it looks.

# lsblk.sh --help
usage:

  BASIC USAGE INFORMATION
  =======================
  # lsblk.sh [DISK]

example(s):

  LIST ALL BLOCK DEVICES IN SYSTEM
  --------------------------------
  # lsblk.sh
  DEVICE         MAJ:MIN SIZE TYPE                      LABEL MOUNT
  ada0             0:5b  932G GPT                           - -
    ada0p1         0:64  200M efi                    efiboot0 [UNMOUNTED]
    ada0p2         0:65  512K freebsd-boot           gptboot0 -
    [FREE]         -:-   492K -                             - -
    ada0p3         0:66  931G freebsd-zfs                zfs0 [ZFS]

  LIST ONLY da1 BLOCK DEVICE
  --------------------------
  # lsblk.sh da1
  DEVICE         MAJ:MIN SIZE TYPE                      LABEL MOUNT
  da1              0:80  2.0G MBR                           - -
    da1s1          0:80  2.0G freebsd                       - -
      da1s1a       0:81  1.0G freebsd-ufs                root /
      da1s1b       0:82  1.0G freebsd-swap               swap SWAP

hint(s):

  DISPLAY ALL DISKS IN SYSTEM
  ---------------------------
  # sysctl kern.disks
  kern.disks: ada0 da0 da1

Regards.

UPDATE 2 – Code Reorganization and 75% Rewrite

… at least this is what git(1) tries to tell me after commit message.

% git commit (...)
[master 12fd4aa] Rework entire flow. Split code into functions. Add many useful comments. In other words its 2.0 version.
 1 file changed, 494 insertions(+), 505 deletions(-)
 rewrite lsblk.sh (75%)

After several productive hours new incarnation of lsblk.sh is now available.

It has similar SLOC but its now smaller by a quarter … while doing more and with better accuracy. Great example why “less is more.”

% wc scripts/lsblk.sh.OLD
     491    2201   19721 scripts/lsblk.sh.OLD

% wc scripts/lsblk.sh
     494    1871   15472 scripts/lsblk.sh

Things that does not have simple solution are described below.

One of them is ‘double’ label for FAT filesystems. We have both /dev/gpt/efiboot0 label and FAT label is named EFISYS. We have to choose something here. As not all FAT filesystems have label I have chosen the GPT label.

% glabel status | grep ada0p1
  gpt/efiboot0     N/A  ada0p1
msdosfs/EFISYS     N/A  ada0p1

I was also not able to cover FUSE mounts. When you mount – for example – the /dev/da0 device as NTFS (with ntfs-3g) or exFAT (with mount.exfat) there is no visible difference in mount(8) output.

% mount -t fusefs
/dev/fuse on /mnt/ntfs (fusefs)
/dev/fuse on /mnt/exfat (fusefs)

When I mount such filesystem by my daemon (like sysutils/automount) I keep track of what device have been mounted to which directory in the /var/run/automount.state file. Then when I get the detach event for /dev/da0 device I know what to u(n)mount … but when I only have /dev/fuse device its just not possible.

… or maybe YOU know any way of extracting information from /dev/fuse (or generally from FUSE) what device is mounted where?

Now little presentation after update.

Here are various non ZFS filesystems mounted.

% mount -t nozfs
devfs on /dev (devfs, local, multilabel)
linprocfs on /compat/linux/proc (linprocfs, local)
tmpfs on /compat/linux/dev/shm (tmpfs, local)
/dev/label/ASD on /mnt/tmp (msdosfs, local)
/dev/fuse on /mnt/ntfs (fusefs)
/dev/md0s1f on /mnt/ufs.other (ufs, local)
/dev/gpt/OTHER on /mnt/fat.other (msdosfs, local)
/dev/md0s1a on /mnt/ufs (ufs, local)

… and here is how now lsblk.sh displays them.

% lsblk.sh
DEVICE         MAJ:MIN SIZE TYPE                      LABEL MOUNT
ada0             0:56  932G GPT                           - -
  ada0p1         0:64  200M efi                gpt/efiboot0 -
  ada0p2         0:65  512K freebsd-boot       gpt/gptboot0 -
  [FREE]         -:-   492K -                             - -
  ada0p3         0:66  931G freebsd-zfs                   - [ZFS]
  [FREE]         -:-   708K -                             - -
md0              0:28f 1.0G MBR                           - -
  md0s1          0:294 512M freebsd                       - -
    md0s1a       0:29a 100M freebsd-ufs                root /mnt/ufs
    md0s1b       0:29b  32M freebsd-swap         label/swap SWAP
    md0s1e       0:29c  64M freebsd-ufs                   - -
    md0s1f       0:29d 316M freebsd-ufs                   - /mnt/ufs.other
  md0s2          0:296 256M ntfs                          - -
  md0s3          0:297 256M fat32               msdosfs/ONE -
md1              0:2a4 1.0G msdosfs                   LARGE 
md2              0:298 2.0G GPT                           - -
  md2p1          0:29f 2.0G ms-basic-data         gpt/OTHER /mnt/fat.other

I used some file based memory devices for this. Now by default lsblk.sh also displays memory disks contents.

% mdconfig.sh -l
md0     vnode    1024M  /home/vermaden/FILE     
md2     vnode    2048M  /home/vermaden/FILE.GPT 
md1     vnode    1024M  /home/vermaden/FILER    

Here is how it looks in the xterm(1) terminal.

lsblk.2.0

Regards.

UPDATE 3 – Added geli(8) Support

I thought that adding geli(8) support may be useful. The latest lsblk.sh now avoids code duplication for MOUNT and LABEL detection (moved into single unified function). Also added more comments for code readability and some minor fixes … and its again smaller πŸ™‚

% wc lsblk.sh.1.0
     491    2201   19721 lsblk.sh.1.0

% wc lsblk.sh.2.0
     493    1861   15415 lsblk.sh.2.0

% wc lsblk.sh
     488    1820   15332 lsblk.sh

About 40% (according to git commit was changed this time (191 insertions and 196 deletions).

# git commit (...)
[master ec9985a] Add geli(8) support. Avoid code duplication and move MOUNT/LABEL detection into function. More comments. Minor fixes.
 1 file changed, 191 insertions(+), 196 deletions(-)

Also forgot to mention that now lsblk.sh thanks to smart optimizations (like not doing things twice and aggregating grep(1) | awk(1) pipes into single awk(1) queries) runs 3 times faster then the initial version πŸ™‚

New output with geli(8) support below.

lsblk.2.1.geli.png

Regards.

UPDATE 4 – Added fuse(8) Support

As I wrote in the UPDATE 2 keeping track of what is mounted and where under fuse(8) is very hard as all mounted devices magically become /dev/fuse after mount is done.

After little research I found that this information (what really is mounted where by using fuse(8) interface under FreeBSD) is available after mounting procfs filesystem under /proc. You just need to cat cmdline entry for all PIDs of ntfs-3g. Its not perfect but the information at least is available.

# mount -t procfs proc /proc

# ps ax | grep ntfs-3g
45995  -  Is      0:00.00 ntfs-3g /dev/md1s2 /mnt/ntfs
59607  -  Is      0:00.00 ntfs-3g /dev/md3 /mnt/ntfs.another
83323  -  Is      0:00.00 ntfs-3g /dev/md3 /mnt/ntfs.another

# pgrep ntfs-3g
59607
83323
45995

% pgrep ntfs-3g | while read I; do cat /proc/$I/cmdline; echo; done
ntfs-3g/dev/md3/mnt/ntfs.another
ntfs-3g/dev/md3/mnt/ntfs.another
ntfs-3g/dev/md1s2/mnt/ntfs

This was the code prototype that worked for fuse(8) mountpoints detection.

    if [ -e /proc/0/status ]
    then
      FUSE_MOUNTS=$(
        while read PID
        do
          cat /proc/${PID}/cmdline
          echo
        done << ________EOF
          $( pgrep ntfs-3g )
________EOF
)
      FUSE_MOUNTS=$( echo "${FUSE_MOUNTS}" | sort -u )
      FUSE_MOUNTS=$( echo "${FUSE_MOUNTS}" | sed 's|ntfs-3g||g' )
      FUSE_CHECKS=$( echo "${FUSE_MOUNTS}" | grep /dev/${TARGET}/ )
      if [ "${FUSE_CHECKS}" != "" ]
      then
        MOUNT=$( echo "${FUSE_CHECKS}" | sed "s|/dev/${TARGET}||g" )
      fi
    fi
  fi

… and I have just realized that I found new (better) way of getting that information without mounting /proc filesystem – all you need to do is to display the ntfs-3g processes with their command line arguments, for example like that:

% ps -p $( pgrep ntfs-3g | tr '\n' ',' | sed '$s/.$//' ) -o command | sed 1d
ntfs-3g /dev/md1s2 /mnt/ntfs
ntfs-3g /dev/md3 /mnt/ntfs.another
ntfs-3g /dev/md3 /mnt/ntfs.another

So after I also thought that its only for NTFS (ntfs-3g(8) process) I also added exFAT support by searching for mount.exfat PIDs as well. The fuse(8) mount point detection works now for both NTFS and exFAT filesystems … and code to support it is even shorter.

  # TRY fuse(8) MOUNTS FROM PROCESSES
  if [ "${MOUNT_FOUND}" != "1" ]
  then
    FUSE_PIDS=$( pgrep mount.exfat ntfs-3g | tr '\n' ',' | sed '$s/.$//' )
    FUSE_MOUNTS=$( ps -p "${FUSE_PIDS}" -o command | sed 1d | sort -u )
    MOUNT=$( echo "${FUSE_MOUNTS}" |  grep "/dev/${TARGET} " | awk '{print $3}' )
  fi

I also changed how MAJOR and MINOR numbers are displayed – from HEX to DEC – as it is on Linux. The FreeBSD’s ls(1) from Base System displays these as HEX – for example you will get 0x2af value:

% ls -l /dev/md4
crw-rw----  1 root  operator  0x2af 2019.09.29 05:18 /dev/md4

But do the same with GNU equivalent by using gls(1) from FreeBSD Ports (from sysutils/coreutils package) and it shows MAJOR and MINOR in DEC values. The gls(1) is just ls(1) from the Linux world but as ls(1) name is already ‘taken’ by FreeBSD’s Base System tool the FreeBSD developers/maintainers add ‘g’ letter (for GNU) to distinguish them.

% gls -l /dev/md4
crw-rw---- 1 root 2, 175 2019-09-29 05:18 /dev/md4

… and they are also easier/faster to get with stat(1) tool.

  MAJ=$( stat -f "%Hr" /dev/${DEV} )
  MIN=$( stat -f "%Lr" /dev/${DEV} )

Latest lsblk.sh looks like that now.

lsblk.2.3.fuse.NTFS.exFAT

… that is why I did not (yet) added lsblk.sh to the FreeBSD Ports. Several new versions with important features span across just two days πŸ™‚

Regards.

UPDATE 5 – Another 69% Rewrite

After messing with gpart(8) more I found that using its -p flag which is a game changer. The difference is that with -p flag it displays names along partitions – its no longer needed to find the PREFIX and ‘create’ partition names.

Default gpart(8) output.

# gpart show md0
=>     63  2097089  md0  MBR  (1.0G)
       63  1048576    1  freebsd  (512M)
  1048639   524288    2  ntfs  (256M)
  1572927   524225    3  fat32  (256M)

Output of gpart(8) with -p flag.

# gpart show -p md0
=>     63  2097089    md0  MBR  (1.0G)
       63  1048576  md0s1  freebsd  (512M)
  1048639   524288  md0s2  ntfs  (256M)
  1572927   524225  md0s3  fat32  (256M)

That discovery implicated a quite large rewrite of lsblk.sh. The git commit estimates this as 69% code rewrite.

# git commit (...)
(...)
 1 file changed, 487 insertions(+), 501 deletions(-)
 rewrite lsblk.sh (69%)

The latest lsblk.sh has now these features:

  • Previous bugs fixed.
  • Detects exFAT labels.
  • Is now 20% faster.
  • Has less 10% SLOC.
  • Has less 15% of code.
  • Handles bsdlabel(8) on entire device properly.
  • Handles exFAT on entire device properly.

The difference in code is shown below.

# wc lsblk.sh
     487    1791   13705 lsblk.sh

# wc lsblk.sh.OLD
     544    1931   16170 lsblk.sh.OLD

Latest lsblk.sh looks as usual but I now use ‘-‘ instead of ‘[UNMOUNTED]‘ one.

lsblk.2.5.gpart.exfat

EOF

FreeBSD Enterprise 1 PB Storage

Today FreeBSD operating system turns 26 years old. 19 June is an International FreeBSD Day. This is why I got something special today :). How about using FreeBSD as an Enterprise Storage solution on real hardware? This where FreeBSD shines with all its storage features ZFS included.

Today I will show you how I have built so called Enterprise Storage based on FreeBSD system along with more then 1 PB (Petabyte) of raw capacity.

I have build various storage related systems based on FreeBSD:

This project is different. How much storage space can you squeeze from a single 4U system? It turns out a lot! Definitely more then 1 PB (1024 TB) of raw storage space.

Here is the (non clickable) Table of Contents.

  • Hardware
  • Management Interface
  • BIOS/UEFI
  • FreeBSD System
    • Disks Preparation
    • ZFS Pool Configuration
    • ZFS Settings
    • Network Configuration
    • FreeBSD Configuration
  • Purpose
  • Performance
    • Network Performance
    • Disk Subsystem Performance
  • FreeNAS
  • UPDATE 1 – BSD Now 305
  • UPDATE 2 – Real Life Pictures in Data Center

Hardware

There are 4U servers with 90-100 3.5″ drive slots which will allow you to pack 1260-1400 Terabytes of data (with 14 TB drives). Examples of such systems are:

I would use the first one – the TYAN FA100 for short name.

logo-tyan.png

While both GlusterFS and Minio clusters were cone on virtual hardware (or even FreeBSD Jails containers) this one uses real physical hardware.

The build has following specifications.

 2 x 10-Core Intel Xeon Silver 4114 CPU @ 2.20GHz
 4 x 32 GB RAM DDR4 (128 GB Total)
 2 x Intel SSD DC S3500 240 GB (System)
90 x Toshiba HDD MN07ACA12TE 12 TB (Data)
 2 x Broadcom SAS3008 Controller
 2 x Intel X710 DA-2 10GE Card
 2 x Power Supply

Price of the whole system is about $65 000 – drives included. Here is how it looks.

tyan-fa100-small.jpg

One thing that you will need is a rack cabinet that is 1200 mm long to fit that monster πŸ™‚

Management Interface

The so called Lights Out management interface is really nice. Its not bloated, well organized and works quite fast. you can create several separate user accounts or can connect to external user services like LDAP/AD/RADIUS for example.

n01.png

After logging in a simple Dashboard welcomes us.

n02.png

We have access to various Sensor information available with temperatures of system components.

n03

We have System Inventory information with installed hardware.

n04.png

There is separate Settings menu for various setup options.

n05.png

I know its 2019 but HTML5 only Remote Control (remote console) without need for any third party plugins like Java/Silverlight/Flash/… is very welcomed. It works very well too.

n06.png

n07.png

One is of course allowed to power on/off/cycle the box remotely.

n08.png

The Maintenance menu for BIOS updates.

n09.png

BIOS/UEFI

After booting into the BIOS/UEFI setup its possible to select from which drives to boot from. On the screenshots the two SSD drives prepared for system.

nas01.png

The BIOS/UEFI interface shows two Enclosures but its two Broadcom SAS3008 controllers. Some drive are attached via first Broadcom SAS3008 controller, the rest is attached via the second one, and they call them Enclosures instead od of controllers for some reason.

nas05.png

FreeBSD System

I have chosen latest FreeBSD 12.0-RELEASE for the purpose of this installation. Its generally very ‘default’ installation with ZFS mirror on two SSD disks. Nothing special.

logo-freebsd.jpg

The installation of course supports the ZFS Boot Environments bulletproof upgrades/changes feature.

# zpool list zroot
NAME    SIZE  ALLOC   FREE  CKPOINT  EXPANDSZ   FRAG    CAP  DEDUP  HEALTH  ALTROOT
zroot   220G  3.75G   216G        -         -     0%     1%  1.00x  ONLINE  -

# zpool status zroot
  pool: zroot
 state: ONLINE
  scan: none requested
config:

        NAME        STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        zroot       ONLINE       0     0     0
          mirror-0  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da91p4  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da11p4  ONLINE       0     0     0

errors: No known data errors

# df -g
Filesystem              1G-blocks Used  Avail Capacity  Mounted on
zroot/ROOT/default            211    2    209     1%    /
devfs                           0    0      0   100%    /dev
zroot/tmp                     209    0    209     0%    /tmp
zroot/usr/home                209    0    209     0%    /usr/home
zroot/usr/ports               210    0    209     0%    /usr/ports
zroot/usr/src                 210    0    209     0%    /usr/src
zroot/var/audit               209    0    209     0%    /var/audit
zroot/var/crash               209    0    209     0%    /var/crash
zroot/var/log                 209    0    209     0%    /var/log
zroot/var/mail                209    0    209     0%    /var/mail
zroot/var/tmp                 209    0    209     0%    /var/tmp

# beadm list
BE      Active Mountpoint  Space Created
default NR     /            2.4G 2019-05-24 13:24

Disks Preparation

From all the possible setups with 90 disks of 12 TB capacity I have chosen to go the RAID60 way – its ZFS equivalent of course. With 12 disks in each RAID6 (raidz2) group – there will be 7 such groups – we will have 84 used for the ZFS pool with 6 drives left as SPARE disks – that plays well for me. The disks distribution will look more or less like that.

DISKS  CONTENT
   12  raidz2-0
   12  raidz2-1
   12  raidz2-2
   12  raidz2-3
   12  raidz2-4
   12  raidz2-5
   12  raidz2-6
    6  spares
   90  TOTAL

Here is how FreeBSD system sees these drives by camcontrol(8) command. Sorted by attached SAS controller – scbus(4).

# camcontrol devlist | sort -k 6
(AHCI SGPIO Enclosure 1.00 0001)   at scbus2 target 0 lun 0 (pass0,ses0)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 50 lun 0 (pass1,da0)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 52 lun 0 (pass2,da1)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 54 lun 0 (pass3,da2)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 56 lun 0 (pass5,da4)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 57 lun 0 (pass6,da5)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 59 lun 0 (pass7,da6)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 60 lun 0 (pass8,da7)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 66 lun 0 (pass9,da8)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 67 lun 0 (pass10,da9)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 74 lun 0 (pass11,da10)
(ATA INTEL SSDSC2KB24 0100)        at scbus3 target 75 lun 0 (pass12,da11)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 76 lun 0 (pass13,da12)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 82 lun 0 (pass14,da13)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 83 lun 0 (pass15,da14)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 85 lun 0 (pass16,da15)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 87 lun 0 (pass17,da16)
(Tyan B7118 0500)                  at scbus3 target 88 lun 0 (pass18,ses1)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 89 lun 0 (pass19,da17)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 90 lun 0 (pass20,da18)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 91 lun 0 (pass21,da19)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 92 lun 0 (pass22,da20)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 93 lun 0 (pass23,da21)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 94 lun 0 (pass24,da22)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 95 lun 0 (pass25,da23)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 96 lun 0 (pass26,da24)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 97 lun 0 (pass27,da25)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 98 lun 0 (pass28,da26)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 99 lun 0 (pass29,da27)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 100 lun 0 (pass30,da28)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 101 lun 0 (pass31,da29)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 102 lun 0 (pass32,da30)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 103 lun 0 (pass33,da31)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 104 lun 0 (pass34,da32)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 105 lun 0 (pass35,da33)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 106 lun 0 (pass36,da34)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 107 lun 0 (pass37,da35)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 108 lun 0 (pass38,da36)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 109 lun 0 (pass39,da37)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus3 target 110 lun 0 (pass40,da38)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 48 lun 0 (pass41,da39)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 49 lun 0 (pass42,da40)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 51 lun 0 (pass43,da41)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 53 lun 0 (pass44,da42)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 55 lun 0 (da43,pass45)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 59 lun 0 (pass46,da44)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 64 lun 0 (pass47,da45)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 67 lun 0 (pass48,da46)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 68 lun 0 (pass49,da47)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 69 lun 0 (pass50,da48)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 73 lun 0 (pass51,da49)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 76 lun 0 (pass52,da50)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 77 lun 0 (pass53,da51)
(Tyan B7118 0500)                  at scbus4 target 80 lun 0 (pass54,ses2)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 81 lun 0 (pass55,da52)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 82 lun 0 (pass56,da53)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 83 lun 0 (pass57,da54)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 84 lun 0 (pass58,da55)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 85 lun 0 (pass59,da56)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 86 lun 0 (pass60,da57)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 87 lun 0 (pass61,da58)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 88 lun 0 (pass62,da59)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 89 lun 0 (da63,pass66)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 90 lun 0 (pass64,da61)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 91 lun 0 (pass65,da62)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 92 lun 0 (da60,pass63)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 94 lun 0 (pass67,da64)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 97 lun 0 (pass68,da65)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 98 lun 0 (pass69,da66)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 99 lun 0 (pass70,da67)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 100 lun 0 (pass71,da68)
(Tyan B7118 0500)                  at scbus4 target 101 lun 0 (pass72,ses3)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 102 lun 0 (pass73,da69)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 103 lun 0 (pass74,da70)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 104 lun 0 (pass75,da71)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 105 lun 0 (pass76,da72)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 106 lun 0 (pass77,da73)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 107 lun 0 (pass78,da74)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 108 lun 0 (pass79,da75)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 109 lun 0 (pass80,da76)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 110 lun 0 (pass81,da77)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 111 lun 0 (pass82,da78)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 112 lun 0 (pass83,da79)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 113 lun 0 (pass84,da80)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 114 lun 0 (pass85,da81)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 115 lun 0 (pass86,da82)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 116 lun 0 (pass87,da83)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 117 lun 0 (pass88,da84)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 118 lun 0 (pass89,da85)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 119 lun 0 (pass90,da86)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 120 lun 0 (pass91,da87)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 121 lun 0 (pass92,da88)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 122 lun 0 (pass93,da89)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 123 lun 0 (pass94,da90)
(ATA INTEL SSDSC2KB24 0100)        at scbus4 target 124 lun 0 (pass95,da91)
(ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1 0101)        at scbus4 target 125 lun 0 (da3,pass4)

One my ask how to identify which disk is which when the FAILURE will came … this is where FreeBSD’s sesutil(8) command comes handy.

# sesutil locate all off
# sesutil locate da64 on

The first sesutil(8) command disables all location lights in the enclosure. The second one turns on the identification for disk da64.

I will also make sure to NOT use the whole space of each drive. Such idea may be pointless but imagine the following situation. Five 12 TB disks failed after 3 years. You can not get the same model drives so you get other 12 TB drives, maybe even from other manufacturer.

# grep da64 /var/run/dmesg.boot
da64 at mpr1 bus 0 scbus4 target 93 lun 0
da64:  Fixed Direct Access SPC-4 SCSI device
da64: Serial Number 98G0A1EQF95G
da64: 1200.000MB/s transfers
da64: Command Queueing enabled
da64: 11444224MB (23437770752 512 byte sectors)

A single 12 TB drive has 23437770752 of 512 byte sectors which equals 12000138625024 bytes of raw capacity.

# expr 23437770752 \* 512
12000138625024

Now image that these other 12 TB drives from other manufacturer will come with 4 bytes smaller size … ZFS will not allow their usage because their size is smaller.

This is why I will use exactly 11175 GB size of each drive which is more or less 1 GB short of its total 11176 GB size.

Below is command that will do that for me for all 90 disks.

# camcontrol devlist \
    | grep TOSHIBA \
    | awk '{print $NF}' \
    | awk -F ',' '{print $2}' \
    | tr -d ')' \
    | while read DISK
      do
        gpart destroy -F                   ${DISK} 1> /dev/null 2> /dev/null
        gpart create -s GPT                ${DISK}
        gpart add -t freebsd-zfs -s 11175G ${DISK}
      done

# gpart show da64
=>         40  23437770672  da64  GPT  (11T)
           40  23435673600     1  freebsd-zfs  (11T)
  23435673640      2097072        - free -  (1.0G)


ZFS Pool Configuration

Next, we will have to create our ZFS pool, its probably the longest zpool command I have ever executed πŸ™‚

As the Toshiba 12 TB disks have 4k sectors we will need to set vfs.zfs.min_auto_ashift to 12 to force them.

# sysctl vfs.zfs.min_auto_ashift=12
vfs.zfs.min_auto_ashift: 12 -> 12

# zpool create nas02 \
    raidz2  da0p1  da1p1  da2p1  da3p1  da4p1  da5p1  da6p1  da7p1  da8p1  da9p1 da10p1 da12p1 \
    raidz2 da13p1 da14p1 da15p1 da16p1 da17p1 da18p1 da19p1 da20p1 da21p1 da22p1 da23p1 da24p1 \
    raidz2 da25p1 da26p1 da27p1 da28p1 da29p1 da30p1 da31p1 da32p1 da33p1 da34p1 da35p1 da36p1 \
    raidz2 da37p1 da38p1 da39p1 da40p1 da41p1 da42p1 da43p1 da44p1 da45p1 da46p1 da47p1 da48p1 \
    raidz2 da49p1 da50p1 da51p1 da52p1 da53p1 da54p1 da55p1 da56p1 da57p1 da58p1 da59p1 da60p1 \
    raidz2 da61p1 da62p1 da63p1 da64p1 da65p1 da66p1 da67p1 da68p1 da69p1 da70p1 da71p1 da72p1 \
    raidz2 da73p1 da74p1 da75p1 da76p1 da77p1 da78p1 da79p1 da80p1 da81p1 da82p1 da83p1 da84p1 \
    spare  da85p1 da86p1 da87p1 da88p1 da89p1 da90p1

# zpool status
  pool: nas02
 state: ONLINE
  scan: scrub repaired 0 in 0 days 00:00:05 with 0 errors on Fri May 31 10:26:29 2019
config:

        NAME        STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        nas02       ONLINE       0     0     0
          raidz2-0  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da0p1   ONLINE       0     0     0
            da1p1   ONLINE       0     0     0
            da2p1   ONLINE       0     0     0
            da3p1   ONLINE       0     0     0
            da4p1   ONLINE       0     0     0
            da5p1   ONLINE       0     0     0
            da6p1   ONLINE       0     0     0
            da7p1   ONLINE       0     0     0
            da8p1   ONLINE       0     0     0
            da9p1   ONLINE       0     0     0
            da10p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da12p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
          raidz2-1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da13p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da14p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da15p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da16p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da17p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da18p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da19p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da20p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da21p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da22p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da23p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da24p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
          raidz2-2  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da25p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da26p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da27p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da28p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da29p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da30p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da31p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da32p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da33p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da34p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da35p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da36p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
          raidz2-3  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da37p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da38p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da39p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da40p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da41p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da42p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da43p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da44p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da45p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da46p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da47p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da48p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
          raidz2-4  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da49p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da50p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da51p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da52p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da53p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da54p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da55p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da56p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da57p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da58p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da59p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da60p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
          raidz2-5  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da61p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da62p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da63p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da64p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da65p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da66p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da67p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da68p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da69p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da70p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da71p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da72p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
          raidz2-6  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da73p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da74p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da75p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da76p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da77p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da78p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da79p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da80p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da81p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da82p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da83p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            da84p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
        spares
          da85p1    AVAIL
          da86p1    AVAIL
          da87p1    AVAIL
          da88p1    AVAIL
          da89p1    AVAIL
          da90p1    AVAIL

errors: No known data errors

# zpool list nas02
NAME    SIZE  ALLOC   FREE  CKPOINT  EXPANDSZ   FRAG    CAP  DEDUP  HEALTH  ALTROOT
nas02   915T  1.42M   915T        -         -     0%     0%  1.00x  ONLINE  -

# zfs list nas02
NAME    USED  AVAIL  REFER  MOUNTPOINT
nas02    88K   675T   201K  none

ZFS Settings

As the primary role of this storage would be keeping files I will use one of the largest values for recordsize – 1 MB – this helps getting better compression ratio.

… but it will also serve as iSCSI Target in which we will try to fit in the native 4k blocks – thus 4096 bytes setting for iSCSI.

# zfs set compression=lz4         nas02
# zfs set atime=off               nas02
# zfs set mountpoint=none         nas02
# zfs set recordsize=1m           nas02
# zfs set redundant_metadata=most nas02
# zfs create                      nas02/nfs
# zfs create                      nas02/smb
# zfs create                      nas02/iscsi
# zfs set recordsize=4k           nas02/iscsi

Also one word on redundant_metadata as its not that obvious parameter. To quote the zfs(8) man page.

# man zfs
(...)
redundant_metadata=all | most
  Controls what types of metadata are stored redundantly.  ZFS stores
  an extra copy of metadata, so that if a single block is corrupted,
  the amount of user data lost is limited.  This extra copy is in
  addition to any redundancy provided at the pool level (e.g. by
  mirroring or RAID-Z), and is in addition to an extra copy specified
  by the copies property (up to a total of 3 copies).  For example if
  the pool is mirrored, copies=2, and redundant_metadata=most, then ZFS
  stores 6 copies of most metadata, and 4 copies of data and some
  metadata.

  When set to all, ZFS stores an extra copy of all metadata.  If a
  single on-disk block is corrupt, at worst a single block of user data
  (which is recordsize bytes long can be lost.)

  When set to most, ZFS stores an extra copy of most types of metadata.
  This can improve performance of random writes, because less metadata
  must be written.  In practice, at worst about 100 blocks (of
  recordsize bytes each) of user data can be lost if a single on-disk
  block is corrupt.  The exact behavior of which metadata blocks are
  stored redundantly may change in future releases.

  The default value is all.
(...)

From the description above we can see that its mostly useful on single device pools because when we have redundancy based on RAIDZ2 (RAID6 equivalent) we do not need to keep additional redundant copies of metadata. This helps to increase write performance.

For the record – iSCSI ZFS zvols are create with command like that one below – as sparse files – also called Thin Provisioning mode.

# zfs create -s -V 16T nas02/iscsi/test

As we have SPARE disks we will also need to enable the zfsd(8) daemon by adding zfsd_enable=YES to the /etc/rc.conf file.

We also need to enable autoreplace property for our pool because by default its set to off.

# zpool get autoreplace nas02
NAME   PROPERTY     VALUE    SOURCE
nas02  autoreplace  off      default

# zpool set autoreplace=on nas02

# zpool get autoreplace nas02
NAME   PROPERTY     VALUE    SOURCE
nas02  autoreplace  on       local

Other ZFS settings are in the /boot/loader.conf file. As this system has 128 GB RAM we will let ZFS use 50 to 75% of that amount for ARC.

# grep vfs.zfs /boot/loader.conf
  vfs.zfs.prefetch_disable=1
  vfs.zfs.cache_flush_disable=1
  vfs.zfs.vdev.cache.size=16M
  vfs.zfs.arc_min=64G
  vfs.zfs.arc_max=96G
  vfs.zfs.deadman_enabled=0

Network Configuration

This is what I really like about FreeBSD. To setup LACP link aggregation tou just need 5 lines in /etc/rc.conf file. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux you would need several files with many lines each.

# head -5 /etc/rc.conf
  defaultrouter="10.20.30.254"
  ifconfig_ixl0="up"
  ifconfig_ixl1="up"
  cloned_interfaces="lagg0"
  ifconfig_lagg0="laggproto lacp laggport ixl0 laggport ixl1 10.20.30.2/24 up"

# ifconfig lagg0
lagg0: flags=8843 metric 0 mtu 1500
        options=e507bb
        ether a0:42:3f:a0:42:3f
        inet 10.20.30.2 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 10.20.30.255
        laggproto lacp lagghash l2,l3,l4
        laggport: ixl0 flags=1c
        laggport: ixl1 flags=1c
        groups: lagg
        media: Ethernet autoselect
        status: active
        nd6 options=29

The Intel X710 DA-2 10GE network adapter is fully supported under FreeBSD by the ixl(4) driver.

intel-x710-da-2.jpg

Cisco Nexus Configuration

This is the Cisco Nexus configuration needed to enable LACP aggregation.

First the ports.

NEXUS-1  Eth1/32  NAS02_IXL0  connected 3  full  a-10G  SFP-H10GB-A
NEXUS-2  Eth1/32  NAS02_IXL1  connected 3  full  a-10G  SFP-H10GB-A

… and now aggregation.

interface Ethernet1/32
  description NAS02_IXL1
  switchport
  switchport access vlan 3
  mtu 9216
  channel-group 128 mode active
  no shutdown
!
interface port-channel128
  description NAS02
  switchport
  switchport access vlan 3
  mtu 9216
  vpc 128

… and the same/similar on the second Cisco Nexus NEXUS-2 switch.

FreeBSD Configuration

These are three most important configuration files on any FreeBSD system.

I will now post all settings I use on this storage system.

The /etc/rc.conf file.

# cat /etc/rc.conf
# NETWORK
  hostname="nas02.local"
  defaultrouter="10.20.30.254"
  ifconfig_ixl0="up"
  ifconfig_ixl1="up"
  cloned_interfaces="lagg0"
  ifconfig_lagg0="laggproto lacp laggport ixl0 laggport ixl1 10.20.30.2/24 up"

# KERNEL MODULES
  kld_list="${kld_list} aesni"

# DAEMON | YES
  zfs_enable=YES
  zfsd_enable=YES
  sshd_enable=YES
  ctld_enable=YES
  powerd_enable=YES

# DAEMON | NFS SERVER
  nfs_server_enable=YES
  nfs_client_enable=YES
  rpc_lockd_enable=YES
  rpc_statd_enable=YES
  rpcbind_enable=YES
  mountd_enable=YES
  mountd_flags="-r"

# OTHER
  dumpdev=NO

The /boot/loader.conf file.

# cat /boot/loader.conf
# BOOT OPTIONS
  autoboot_delay=3
  kern.geom.label.disk_ident.enable=0
  kern.geom.label.gptid.enable=0

# DISABLE INTEL HT
  machdep.hyperthreading_allowed=0

# UPDATE INTEL CPU MICROCODE AT BOOT BEFORE KERNEL IS LOADED
  cpu_microcode_load=YES
  cpu_microcode_name=/boot/firmware/intel-ucode.bin

# MODULES
  zfs_load=YES
  aio_load=YES

# RACCT/RCTL RESOURCE LIMITS
  kern.racct.enable=1

# DISABLE MEMORY TEST @ BOOT
  hw.memtest.tests=0

# PIPE KVA LIMIT | 320 MB
  kern.ipc.maxpipekva=335544320

# IPC
  kern.ipc.shmseg=1024
  kern.ipc.shmmni=1024
  kern.ipc.shmseg=1024
  kern.ipc.semmns=512
  kern.ipc.semmnu=256
  kern.ipc.semume=256
  kern.ipc.semopm=256
  kern.ipc.semmsl=512

# LARGE PAGE MAPPINGS
  vm.pmap.pg_ps_enabled=1

# ZFS TUNING
  vfs.zfs.prefetch_disable=1
  vfs.zfs.cache_flush_disable=1
  vfs.zfs.vdev.cache.size=16M
  vfs.zfs.arc_min=64G
  vfs.zfs.arc_max=96G

# ZFS DISABLE PANIC ON STALE I/O
  vfs.zfs.deadman_enabled=0

# NEWCONS SUSPEND
  kern.vt.suspendswitch=0

The /etc/sysctl.conf file.

# cat /etc/sysctl.conf
# ZFS ASHIFT
  vfs.zfs.min_auto_ashift=12

# SECURITY
  security.bsd.stack_guard_page=1

# SECURITY INTEL MDS (MICROARCHITECTURAL DATA SAMPLING) MITIGATION
  hw.mds_disable=3

# DISABLE ANNOYING THINGS
  kern.coredump=0
  hw.syscons.bell=0

# IPC
  kern.ipc.shmmax=4294967296
  kern.ipc.shmall=2097152
  kern.ipc.somaxconn=4096
  kern.ipc.maxsockbuf=5242880
  kern.ipc.shm_allow_removed=1

# NETWORK
  kern.ipc.maxsockbuf=16777216
  kern.ipc.soacceptqueue=1024
  net.inet.tcp.recvbuf_max=8388608
  net.inet.tcp.sendbuf_max=8388608
  net.inet.tcp.mssdflt=1460
  net.inet.tcp.minmss=1300
  net.inet.tcp.syncache.rexmtlimit=0
  net.inet.tcp.syncookies=0
  net.inet.tcp.tso=0
  net.inet.ip.process_options=0
  net.inet.ip.random_id=1
  net.inet.ip.redirect=0
  net.inet.icmp.drop_redirect=1
  net.inet.tcp.always_keepalive=0
  net.inet.tcp.drop_synfin=1
  net.inet.tcp.fast_finwait2_recycle=1
  net.inet.tcp.icmp_may_rst=0
  net.inet.tcp.msl=8192
  net.inet.tcp.path_mtu_discovery=0
  net.inet.udp.blackhole=1
  net.inet.tcp.blackhole=2
  net.inet.tcp.hostcache.expire=7200
  net.inet.tcp.delacktime=20

Purpose

Why one would built such appliance? Because its a lot cheaper then to get the ‘branded’ one. Think about Dell EMC Data Domain for example – and not just ‘any’ Data Domain but almost the highest one – the Data Domain DD9300 at least. It would cost about ten times more at least … with smaller capacity and taking not 4U but closer to 14U with three DS60 expanders.

But you can actually make this FreeBSD Enterprise Storage behave like Dell EMC Data Domain .. or like their Dell EMC Elastic Cloud Storage for example.

The Dell EMC CloudBoost can be deployed somewhere on your VMware stack to provide the DDBoost deduplication. Then you would need OpenStack Swift as its one of the supported backed devices.

emc-cloudboost-swift-cover.png

emc-cloudboost-swift-support.png

The OpenStack Swift package in FreeBSD is about 4-5 years behind reality (2.2.2) so you will have to use Bhyve here.

# pkg search swift
(...)
py27-swift-2.2.2_1             Highly available, distributed, eventually consistent object/blob store
(...)

Create Bhyve virtual machine on this FreeBSD Enterprise Storage with CentOS 7.6 system for example, then setup Swift there, but it will work. With 20 physical cores to spare and 128 GB RAM you would not even noticed its there.

This way you can use Dell EMC Networker with more then ten times cheaper storage.

In the past I also wrote about IBM Spectrum Protect (TSM) which would also greatly benefit from FreeBSD Enterprise Storage. I actually also use this FreeBSD based storage as space for IBM Spectrum Protect (TSM) container pool directories. Exported via iSCSI works like a charm.

You can also compare that FreeBSD Enterprise Storage to other storage appliances like iXsystems TrueNAS or EXAGRID.

Performance

You for sure would want to know how fast this FreeBSD Enterprise Storage performs πŸ™‚

I will share all performance data that I gathered with a pleasure.

Network Performance

First the network performance.

I user iperf3 as the benchmark.

I started the server on the FreeBSD side.

# iperf3 -s

… and then I started client on the Windows Server 2016 machine.

C:\iperf-3.1.3-win64>iperf3.exe -c nas02 -P 8
(...)
[SUM]   0.00-10.00  sec  10.8 GBytes  9.26 Gbits/sec                  receiver
(..)

This is with MTU 1500 – no Jumbo frames unfortunatelly 😦

Unfortunatelly this system has only one physical 10GE interface but I did other test also. Using two such boxes with single 10GE interface. That saturated the dual 10GE LACP on FreeBSD side nicely.

I also exported NFS and iSCSI to Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. The network performance was about 500-600 MB/s on single 10GE interface. That would be 1000-1200 MB/s on LACP aggregation.

Disk Subsystem Performance

Now the disk subsystem.

First some naive test using diskinfo(8) FreeBSD’s builtin tool.

# diskinfo -ctv /dev/da12
/dev/da12
        512             # sectorsize
        12000138625024  # mediasize in bytes (11T)
        23437770752     # mediasize in sectors
        4096            # stripesize
        0               # stripeoffset
        1458933         # Cylinders according to firmware.
        255             # Heads according to firmware.
        63              # Sectors according to firmware.
        ATA TOSHIBA MG07ACA1    # Disk descr.
        98H0A11KF95G    # Disk ident.
        id1,enc@n500e081010445dbd/type@0/slot@c/elmdesc@ArrayDevice11   # Physical path
        No              # TRIM/UNMAP support
        7200            # Rotation rate in RPM
        Not_Zoned       # Zone Mode

I/O command overhead:
        time to read 10MB block      0.067031 sec       =    0.003 msec/sector
        time to read 20480 sectors   2.619989 sec       =    0.128 msec/sector
        calculated command overhead                     =    0.125 msec/sector

Seek times:
        Full stroke:      250 iter in   5.665880 sec =   22.664 msec
        Half stroke:      250 iter in   4.263047 sec =   17.052 msec
        Quarter stroke:   500 iter in   6.867914 sec =   13.736 msec
        Short forward:    400 iter in   3.057913 sec =    7.645 msec
        Short backward:   400 iter in   1.979287 sec =    4.948 msec
        Seq outer:       2048 iter in   0.169472 sec =    0.083 msec
        Seq inner:       2048 iter in   0.469630 sec =    0.229 msec

Transfer rates:
        outside:       102400 kbytes in   0.478251 sec =   214114 kbytes/sec
        middle:        102400 kbytes in   0.605701 sec =   169060 kbytes/sec
        inside:        102400 kbytes in   1.303909 sec =    78533 kbytes/sec

So now we know how fast a single disk is.

Let’s repeast the same test on the ZFS zvol device.

# diskinfo -ctv /dev/zvol/nas02/iscsi/test
/dev/zvol/nas02/iscsi/test
        512             # sectorsize
        17592186044416  # mediasize in bytes (16T)
        34359738368     # mediasize in sectors
        65536           # stripesize
        0               # stripeoffset
        Yes             # TRIM/UNMAP support
        Unknown         # Rotation rate in RPM

I/O command overhead:
        time to read 10MB block      0.004512 sec       =    0.000 msec/sector
        time to read 20480 sectors   0.196824 sec       =    0.010 msec/sector
        calculated command overhead                     =    0.009 msec/sector

Seek times:
        Full stroke:      250 iter in   0.006151 sec =    0.025 msec
        Half stroke:      250 iter in   0.008228 sec =    0.033 msec
        Quarter stroke:   500 iter in   0.014062 sec =    0.028 msec
        Short forward:    400 iter in   0.010564 sec =    0.026 msec
        Short backward:   400 iter in   0.011725 sec =    0.029 msec
        Seq outer:       2048 iter in   0.028198 sec =    0.014 msec
        Seq inner:       2048 iter in   0.028416 sec =    0.014 msec

Transfer rates:
        outside:       102400 kbytes in   0.036938 sec =  2772213 kbytes/sec
        middle:        102400 kbytes in   0.043076 sec =  2377194 kbytes/sec
        inside:        102400 kbytes in   0.034260 sec =  2988908 kbytes/sec

Almost 3 GB/s – not bad.

Time for even more oldschool test – the immortal dd(8) command.

This is with compression=off setting.

One process.

# dd if=/dev/zero of=FILE bs=128m status=progress
26172456960 bytes (26 GB, 24 GiB) transferred 16.074s, 1628 MB/s
202+0 records in
201+0 records out
26977763328 bytes transferred in 16.660884 secs (1619227644 bytes/sec)

Four concurrent processes.

# dd if=/dev/zero of=FILE${X} bs=128m status=progress
80933289984 bytes (81 GB, 75 GiB) transferred 98.081s, 825 MB/s
608+0 records in
608+0 records out
81604378624 bytes transferred in 98.990579 secs (824365101 bytes/sec)

Eight concurrent processes.

# dd if=/dev/zero of=FILE${X} bs=128m status=progress
174214610944 bytes (174 GB, 162 GiB) transferred 385.042s, 452 MB/s
1302+0 records in
1301+0 records out
174617264128 bytes transferred in 385.379296 secs (453104943 bytes/sec)

Lets summarize that data.

1 STREAM(s) ~ 1600 MB/s ~ 1.5 GB/s
4 STREAM(s) ~ 3300 MB/s ~ 3.2 GB/s
8 STREAM(s) ~ 3600 MB/s ~ 3.5 GB/s

So the disk subsystem is able to squeeze 3.5 GB/s of sustained speed in sequential writes. That us that if we would want to saturate it we would need to add additional two 10GE interfaces.

The disks were stressed only to about 55% which you can see in other useful FreeBSD tool – gstat(8) command.

n10.png

Time for more ‘intelligent’ tests. The blogbench test.

First with compression disabled.

# time blogbench -d .
Frequency = 10 secs
Scratch dir = [.]
Spawning 3 writers...
Spawning 1 rewriters...
Spawning 5 commenters...
Spawning 100 readers...
Benchmarking for 30 iterations.
The test will run during 5 minutes.
(...)
Final score for writes:          6476
Final score for reads :        660436

blogbench -d .  280.58s user 4974.41s system 1748% cpu 5:00.54 total

Second with compression set to LZ4.

# time blogbench -d .
Frequency = 10 secs
Scratch dir = [.]
Spawning 3 writers...
Spawning 1 rewriters...
Spawning 5 commenters...
Spawning 100 readers...
Benchmarking for 30 iterations.
The test will run during 5 minutes.
(...)
Final score for writes:          7087
Final score for reads :        733932

blogbench -d .  299.08s user 5415.04s system 1900% cpu 5:00.68 total

Compression did not helped much, but helped.

To have some comparision we will run the same test on the system ZFS pool – two Intel SSD DC S3500 240 GB drives in mirror which have following features.

The Intel SSD DC S3500 240 GB drives:

  • Sequential Read (up to) 500 MB/s
  • Sequential Write (up to) 260 MB/s
  • Random Read (100% Span) 75000 IOPS
  • Random Write (100% Span) 7500 IOPS
# time blogbench -d .
Frequency = 10 secs
Scratch dir = [.]
Spawning 3 writers...
Spawning 1 rewriters...
Spawning 5 commenters...
Spawning 100 readers...
Benchmarking for 30 iterations.
The test will run during 5 minutes.
(...)
Final score for writes:          6109
Final score for reads :        654099

blogbench -d .  278.73s user 5058.75s system 1777% cpu 5:00.30 total

Now the randomio test. Its multithreaded disk I/O microbenchmark.

The usage is as follows.

usage: randomio filename nr_threads write_fraction_of_io fsync_fraction_of_writes io_size nr_seconds_between_samples

filename                    Filename or device to read/write.
write_fraction_of_io        What fraction of I/O should be writes - for example 0.25 for 25% write.
fsync_fraction_of_writes    What fraction of writes should be fsync'd.
io_size                     How many bytes to read/write (multiple of 512 bytes).
nr_seconds_between_samples  How many seconds to average samples over.

The randomio with 4k block.

# zfs create -s -V 1T nas02/iscsi/test
# randomio /dev/zvol/nas02/iscsi/test 8 0.25 1 4096 10
  total |  read:         latency (ms)       |  write:        latency (ms)
   iops |   iops   min    avg    max   sdev |   iops   min    avg    max   sdev
--------+-----------------------------------+----------------------------------
54137.7 |40648.4   0.0    0.1  575.8    2.2 |13489.4   0.0    0.3  405.8    2.6
66248.4 |49641.5   0.0    0.1   19.6    0.3 |16606.9   0.0    0.2   26.4    0.7
66411.0 |49817.2   0.0    0.1   19.7    0.3 |16593.8   0.0    0.2   20.3    0.7
64158.9 |48142.8   0.0    0.1  254.7    0.7 |16016.1   0.0    0.2  130.4    1.0
48454.1 |36390.8   0.0    0.1  542.8    2.7 |12063.3   0.0    0.3  507.5    3.2
66796.1 |50067.4   0.0    0.1   24.1    0.3 |16728.7   0.0    0.2   23.4    0.7
58512.2 |43851.7   0.0    0.1  576.5    1.7 |14660.5   0.0    0.2  307.2    1.7
63195.8 |47341.8   0.0    0.1  261.6    0.9 |15854.1   0.0    0.2  361.1    1.9
67086.0 |50335.6   0.0    0.1   20.4    0.3 |16750.4   0.0    0.2   25.1    0.8
67429.8 |50549.6   0.0    0.1   21.8    0.3 |16880.3   0.0    0.2   20.6    0.7
^C

… and with 512 sector.

# zfs create -s -V 1T nas02/iscsi/test
# randomio /dev/zvol/nas02/iscsi/TEST 8 0.25 1 512 10
  total |  read:         latency (ms)       |  write:        latency (ms)
   iops |   iops   min    avg    max   sdev |   iops   min    avg    max   sdev
--------+-----------------------------------+----------------------------------
58218.9 |43712.0   0.0    0.1  501.5    2.1 |14506.9   0.0    0.2  272.5    1.6
66325.3 |49703.8   0.0    0.1  352.0    0.9 |16621.4   0.0    0.2  352.0    1.5
68130.5 |51100.8   0.0    0.1   24.6    0.3 |17029.7   0.0    0.2   24.4    0.7
68465.3 |51352.3   0.0    0.1   19.9    0.3 |17112.9   0.0    0.2   23.8    0.7
54903.5 |41249.1   0.0    0.1  399.3    1.9 |13654.4   0.0    0.3  335.8    2.2
61259.8 |45898.7   0.0    0.1  574.6    1.7 |15361.0   0.0    0.2  371.5    1.7
68483.3 |51313.1   0.0    0.1   22.9    0.3 |17170.3   0.0    0.2   26.1    0.7
56713.7 |42524.7   0.0    0.1  373.5    1.8 |14189.1   0.0    0.2  438.5    2.7
68861.4 |51657.0   0.0    0.1   21.0    0.3 |17204.3   0.0    0.2   21.7    0.7
68602.0 |51438.4   0.0    0.1   19.5    0.3 |17163.7   0.0    0.2   23.7    0.7
^C

Both randomio tests were run with compression set to LZ4.

Next is bonnie++ benchmark. It has been run with compression set to LZ4.

# bonnie++ -d . -u root
Using uid:0, gid:0.
Writing a byte at a time...done
Writing intelligently...done
Rewriting...done
Reading a byte at a time...done
Reading intelligently...done
start 'em...done...done...done...done...done...
Create files in sequential order...done.
Stat files in sequential order...done.
Delete files in sequential order...done.
Create files in random order...done.
Stat files in random order...done.
Delete files in random order...done.
Version  1.97       ------Sequential Output------ --Sequential Input- --Random-
Concurrency   1     -Per Chr- --Block-- -Rewrite- -Per Chr- --Block-- --Seeks--
Machine        Size K/sec %CP K/sec %CP K/sec %CP K/sec %CP K/sec %CP  /sec %CP
nas02.local 261368M   139  99 775132  99 589190  99   383  99 1638929  99 12930 2046
Latency             60266us    7030us    7059us   21553us    3844us    5710us
Version  1.97       ------Sequential Create------ --------Random Create--------
nas02.local         -Create-- --Read--- -Delete-- -Create-- --Read--- -Delete--
              files  /sec %CP  /sec %CP  /sec %CP  /sec %CP  /sec %CP  /sec %CP
                 16 +++++ +++ +++++ +++ 12680  44 +++++ +++ +++++ +++ 30049  99
Latency              2619us      43us     714ms    2748us      28us      58us

… and last but not least the fio benchmark. Also with LZ4 compression enabled.

# fio --randrepeat=1 --direct=1 --gtod_reduce=1 --name=test --filename=random_read_write.fio --bs=4k --iodepth=64 --size=4G --readwrite=randrw --rwmixread=75
test: (g=0): rw=randrw, bs=(R) 4096B-4096B, (W) 4096B-4096B, (T) 4096B-4096B, ioengine=psync, iodepth=64
fio-3.13
Starting 1 process
Jobs: 1 (f=1): [m(1)][98.0%][r=38.0MiB/s,w=12.2MiB/s][r=9735,w=3128 IOPS][eta 00m:05s]
test: (groupid=0, jobs=1): err= 0: pid=35368: Tue Jun 18 15:14:44 2019
  read: IOPS=3157, BW=12.3MiB/s (12.9MB/s)(3070MiB/248872msec)
   bw (  KiB/s): min= 9404, max=57732, per=98.72%, avg=12469.84, stdev=3082.99, samples=497
   iops        : min= 2351, max=14433, avg=3117.15, stdev=770.74, samples=497
  write: IOPS=1055, BW=4222KiB/s (4323kB/s)(1026MiB/248872msec)
   bw (  KiB/s): min= 3179, max=18914, per=98.71%, avg=4166.60, stdev=999.23, samples=497
   iops        : min=  794, max= 4728, avg=1041.25, stdev=249.76, samples=497
  cpu          : usr=1.11%, sys=88.64%, ctx=677981, majf=0, minf=0
  IO depths    : 1=100.0%, 2=0.0%, 4=0.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     submit    : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     complete  : 0=0.0%, 4=100.0%, 8=0.0%, 16=0.0%, 32=0.0%, 64=0.0%, >=64=0.0%
     issued rwts: total=785920,262656,0,0 short=0,0,0,0 dropped=0,0,0,0
     latency   : target=0, window=0, percentile=100.00%, depth=64

Run status group 0 (all jobs):
   READ: bw=12.3MiB/s (12.9MB/s), 12.3MiB/s-12.3MiB/s (12.9MB/s-12.9MB/s), io=3070MiB (3219MB), run=248872-248872msec
  WRITE: bw=4222KiB/s (4323kB/s), 4222KiB/s-4222KiB/s (4323kB/s-4323kB/s), io=1026MiB (1076MB), run=248872-248872msec

Dunno how about you but I am satisfied with performance πŸ™‚

FreeNAS

Originally I really wanted to use FreeNAS on these boxes and I even installed FreeNAS on them. It run nicely but … the security part of FreeNAS was not best.

This is the output of pkg audit command. Quite scarry.

root@freenas[~]# pkg audit -F
Fetching vuln.xml.bz2: 100%  785 KiB 804.3kB/s    00:01
python27-2.7.15 is vulnerable:
Python -- NULL pointer dereference vulnerability
CVE: CVE-2019-5010
WWW: https://vuxml.FreeBSD.org/freebsd/d74371d2-4fee-11e9-a5cd-1df8a848de3d.html

curl-7.62.0 is vulnerable:
curl -- multiple vulnerabilities
CVE: CVE-2019-3823
CVE: CVE-2019-3822
CVE: CVE-2018-16890
WWW: https://vuxml.FreeBSD.org/freebsd/714b033a-2b09-11e9-8bc3-610fd6e6cd05.html

libgcrypt-1.8.2 is vulnerable:
libgcrypt -- side-channel attack vulnerability
CVE: CVE-2018-0495
WWW: https://vuxml.FreeBSD.org/freebsd/9b5162de-6f39-11e8-818e-e8e0b747a45a.html

python36-3.6.5_1 is vulnerable:
Python -- NULL pointer dereference vulnerability
CVE: CVE-2019-5010
WWW: https://vuxml.FreeBSD.org/freebsd/d74371d2-4fee-11e9-a5cd-1df8a848de3d.html

pango-1.42.0 is vulnerable:
pango -- remote DoS vulnerability
CVE: CVE-2018-15120
WWW: https://vuxml.FreeBSD.org/freebsd/5a757a31-f98e-4bd4-8a85-f1c0f3409769.html

py36-requests-2.18.4 is vulnerable:
www/py-requests -- Information disclosure vulnerability
WWW: https://vuxml.FreeBSD.org/freebsd/50ad9a9a-1e28-11e9-98d7-0050562a4d7b.html

libnghttp2-1.31.0 is vulnerable:
nghttp2 -- Denial of service due to NULL pointer dereference
CVE: CVE-2018-1000168
WWW: https://vuxml.FreeBSD.org/freebsd/1fccb25e-8451-438c-a2b9-6a021e4d7a31.html

gnupg-2.2.6 is vulnerable:
gnupg -- unsanitized output (CVE-2018-12020)
CVE: CVE-2017-7526
CVE: CVE-2018-12020
WWW: https://vuxml.FreeBSD.org/freebsd/7da0417f-6b24-11e8-84cc-002590acae31.html

py36-cryptography-2.1.4 is vulnerable:
py-cryptography -- tag forgery vulnerability
CVE: CVE-2018-10903
WWW: https://vuxml.FreeBSD.org/freebsd/9e2d0dcf-9926-11e8-a92d-0050562a4d7b.html

perl5-5.26.1 is vulnerable:
perl -- multiple vulnerabilities
CVE: CVE-2018-6913
CVE: CVE-2018-6798
CVE: CVE-2018-6797
WWW: https://vuxml.FreeBSD.org/freebsd/41c96ffd-29a6-4dcc-9a88-65f5038fa6eb.html

libssh2-1.8.0,3 is vulnerable:
libssh2 -- multiple issues
CVE: CVE-2019-3862
CVE: CVE-2019-3861
CVE: CVE-2019-3860
CVE: CVE-2019-3858
WWW: https://vuxml.FreeBSD.org/freebsd/6e58e1e9-2636-413e-9f84-4c0e21143628.html

git-lite-2.17.0 is vulnerable:
Git -- Fix memory out-of-bounds and remote code execution vulnerabilities (CVE-2018-11233 and CVE-2018-11235)
CVE: CVE-2018-11235
CVE: CVE-2018-11233
WWW: https://vuxml.FreeBSD.org/freebsd/c7a135f4-66a4-11e8-9e63-3085a9a47796.html

gnutls-3.5.18 is vulnerable:
GnuTLS -- double free, invalid pointer access
CVE: CVE-2019-3836
CVE: CVE-2019-3829
WWW: https://vuxml.FreeBSD.org/freebsd/fb30db8f-62af-11e9-b0de-001cc0382b2f.html

13 problem(s) in the installed packages found.

root@freenas[~]# uname -a
FreeBSD freenas.local 11.2-STABLE FreeBSD 11.2-STABLE #0 r325575+95cc58ca2a0(HEAD): Mon May  6 19:08:58 EDT 2019     root@mp20.tn.ixsystems.com:/freenas-releng/freenas/_BE/objs/freenas-releng/freenas/_BE/os/sys/FreeNAS.amd64  amd64

root@freenas[~]# freebsd-version -uk
11.2-STABLE
11.2-STABLE

root@freenas[~]# sockstat -l4
USER     COMMAND    PID   FD PROTO  LOCAL ADDRESS         FOREIGN ADDRESS
root     uwsgi-3.6  4006  3  tcp4   127.0.0.1:9042        *:*
root     uwsgi-3.6  3188  3  tcp4   127.0.0.1:9042        *:*
nobody   mdnsd      3144  4  udp4   *:31417               *:*
nobody   mdnsd      3144  6  udp4   *:5353                *:*
www      nginx      3132  6  tcp4   *:443                 *:*
www      nginx      3132  8  tcp4   *:80                  *:*
root     nginx      3131  6  tcp4   *:443                 *:*
root     nginx      3131  8  tcp4   *:80                  *:*
root     ntpd       2823  21 udp4   *:123                 *:*
root     ntpd       2823  22 udp4   10.49.13.99:123       *:*
root     ntpd       2823  25 udp4   127.0.0.1:123         *:*
root     sshd       2743  5  tcp4   *:22                  *:*
root     syslog-ng  2341  19 udp4   *:1031                *:*
nobody   mdnsd      2134  3  udp4   *:39020               *:*
nobody   mdnsd      2134  5  udp4   *:5353                *:*
root     python3.6  236   22 tcp4   *:6000                *:*


I even tried to get explanation why FreeNAS has such outdated and insecure packages in their latest version – FreeNAS 11.2-U3 Vulnerabilities – a thread I started on their forums.

Unfortunatelly its their policy which you can summarize as ‘do not touch/change versions if its working’ – at last I got this implression.

Because if these security holes I can not recommend the use of FreeNAS and I movedto original – the FreeBSD system.

One other interesting note. After I installed FreeBSD I wanted to import the ZFS pool created by FreeNAS. This is what I got after executing the zpool import command.

# zpool import
   pool: nas02_gr06
     id: 1275660523517109367
  state: ONLINE
 status: The pool was last accessed by another system.
 action: The pool can be imported using its name or numeric identifier and
        the '-f' flag.
   see: http://illumos.org/msg/ZFS-8000-EY
 config:

        nas02_gr06  ONLINE
          raidz2-0  ONLINE
            da58p2  ONLINE
            da59p2  ONLINE
            da60p2  ONLINE
            da61p2  ONLINE
            da62p2  ONLINE
            da63p2  ONLINE
            da64p2  ONLINE
            da26p2  ONLINE
            da65p2  ONLINE
            da23p2  ONLINE
            da29p2  ONLINE
            da66p2  ONLINE
            da67p2  ONLINE
            da68p2  ONLINE
        spares
          da69p2

   pool: nas02_gr05
     id: 5642709896812665361
  state: ONLINE
 status: The pool was last accessed by another system.
 action: The pool can be imported using its name or numeric identifier and
        the '-f' flag.
   see: http://illumos.org/msg/ZFS-8000-EY
 config:

        nas02_gr05  ONLINE
          raidz2-0  ONLINE
            da20p2  ONLINE
            da30p2  ONLINE
            da34p2  ONLINE
            da50p2  ONLINE
            da28p2  ONLINE
            da38p2  ONLINE
            da51p2  ONLINE
            da52p2  ONLINE
            da27p2  ONLINE
            da32p2  ONLINE
            da53p2  ONLINE
            da54p2  ONLINE
            da55p2  ONLINE
            da56p2  ONLINE
        spares
          da57p2

   pool: nas02_gr04
     id: 2460983830075205166
  state: ONLINE
 status: The pool was last accessed by another system.
 action: The pool can be imported using its name or numeric identifier and
        the '-f' flag.
   see: http://illumos.org/msg/ZFS-8000-EY
 config:

        nas02_gr04  ONLINE
          raidz2-0  ONLINE
            da44p2  ONLINE
            da37p2  ONLINE
            da18p2  ONLINE
            da36p2  ONLINE
            da45p2  ONLINE
            da19p2  ONLINE
            da22p2  ONLINE
            da33p2  ONLINE
            da35p2  ONLINE
            da21p2  ONLINE
            da31p2  ONLINE
            da47p2  ONLINE
            da48p2  ONLINE
            da49p2  ONLINE
        spares
          da46p2

   pool: nas02_gr03
     id: 4878868173820164207
  state: ONLINE
 status: The pool was last accessed by another system.
 action: The pool can be imported using its name or numeric identifier and
        the '-f' flag.
   see: http://illumos.org/msg/ZFS-8000-EY
 config:

        nas02_gr03  ONLINE
          raidz2-0  ONLINE
            da81p2  ONLINE
            da71p2  ONLINE
            da14p2  ONLINE
            da15p2  ONLINE
            da80p2  ONLINE
            da16p2  ONLINE
            da88p2  ONLINE
            da17p2  ONLINE
            da40p2  ONLINE
            da41p2  ONLINE
            da25p2  ONLINE
            da42p2  ONLINE
            da24p2  ONLINE
            da43p2  ONLINE
        spares
          da39p2

   pool: nas02_gr02
     id: 3299037437134217744
  state: ONLINE
 status: The pool was last accessed by another system.
 action: The pool can be imported using its name or numeric identifier and
        the '-f' flag.
   see: http://illumos.org/msg/ZFS-8000-EY
 config:

        nas02_gr02  ONLINE
          raidz2-0  ONLINE
            da84p2  ONLINE
            da76p2  ONLINE
            da85p2  ONLINE
            da8p2   ONLINE
            da9p2   ONLINE
            da78p2  ONLINE
            da73p2  ONLINE
            da74p2  ONLINE
            da70p2  ONLINE
            da77p2  ONLINE
            da11p2  ONLINE
            da13p2  ONLINE
            da79p2  ONLINE
            da89p2  ONLINE
        spares
          da90p2

   pool: nas02_gr01
     id: 1132383125952900182
  state: ONLINE
 status: The pool was last accessed by another system.
 action: The pool can be imported using its name or numeric identifier and
        the '-f' flag.
   see: http://illumos.org/msg/ZFS-8000-EY
 config:

        nas02_gr01  ONLINE
          raidz2-0  ONLINE
            da91p2  ONLINE
            da75p2  ONLINE
            da0p2   ONLINE
            da82p2  ONLINE
            da1p2   ONLINE
            da83p2  ONLINE
            da2p2   ONLINE
            da3p2   ONLINE
            da4p2   ONLINE
            da5p2   ONLINE
            da86p2  ONLINE
            da6p2   ONLINE
            da7p2   ONLINE
            da72p2  ONLINE
        spares
          da87p2



It seems that FreeNAS does ZFS little differently and they create a separate pool for every RAIDZ2 target with dedicated spares. Interesting …

UPDATE 1 – BSD Now 305

The FreeBSD Enterprise 1 PB Storage article was featured in the BSD Now 305 – Changing Face of Unix episode.

Thanks for mentioning!

UPDATE 2 – Real Life Pictures in Data Center

Some of you asked for a real life pictures of this monster. Below you will find several pics taken at the data center.

Front case with cabling.

tyan-real-01.jpg

Alternate front view.

tyan-real-09.jpg

Back of the case with cabling.

tyan-real-02.jpg

Top view with disks.

tyan-real-03

Alternate top view.

tyan-real-07.jpg

Disks slots zoom.

tyan-real-08.jpg

SSD and HDD disks.

tyan-real-06.jpg

EOF