Tag Archives: amd

FreeBSD Desktop – Part 2.1 – Install FreeBSD 12

This article is an update/rewrite to the already published FreeBSD Desktop – Part 2 – Install. With the upcoming introduction of the FreeBSD 12.0-RELESE version new possibilities arise when it comes to installation. I already talked/showed that method in my ZFS Boot Environments Reloaded at NLUUG presentation but to make it more available and obvious part of my FreeBSD Desktop series I write about it again in dedicated article entry.

You may want to check other articles in the FreeBSD Desktop series on the FreeBSD Desktop – Global Page where you will find links to all episodes of the series along with table of contents for each episode’s contents.

Now (in FreeBSD 12.x) it is possible to install FreeBSD on GELI encrypted root on ZFS pool without any additional partitions or filesystems. No longer separate UFS or ZFS boot pool /boot filesystem is needed. And what is even more appealing such setup is supported both on UEFI and BIOS (also refereed as Legacy or CSM) systems. Such setup is also compatible with both new bectl(8) utility and the old proven beadm(8) tool. It is also nice that to make such setup you only need to choose the Auto ZFS option from the bsdinstall(8) so you will not have to do it by hand. I advice using GPT (BIOS+UEFI) as it will support both system types so when you are running BIOS system now and will move the disk to other system that boots with UEFI it will also just work out of the box.

The FreeBSD 12.0 is currently at the RC1 stage so we will use that one for below examples of such setup. The 12.0-RELEASE is expected to arise before Christmas if no significant problems or bugs will be found on the road to RC2 and RC3 editions.

For the record here is the FreeBSD 12.0-RC1 Availability information page and aggregated FreeBSD 12.0-RELEASE Release Notes for the upcoming new major FreeBSD version, but it is not yet complete/ready.

I will only show one install process that will work for both UEFI and BIOS systems – the crucial option here is GPT (BIOS+UEFI) to select (which is also the default one). The other option that You need to select is Yes for the Encryption part and also select the SWAP size. You may as well do not use swap and enter ‘0‘ here which means that SWAP partition will not be created. You may as well create ZFS ZVOL partition for SWAP on ZFS pool later or just create a file like /SWAP and enable it as SWAP. No matter which SWAP option you will choose if your system swaps then you are too low on memory and neither of these methods are better or worse then.

freebsd-install-01.png

freebsd-install-02.png

freebsd-install-03.png

One last thing about the default FreeBSD (no matter if 11.x or 12.x) ZFS dataset/filesystem layout. I showed it on my ZFS Boot Environments/ZFS Boot Environments Reloaded presentations but without any text comment as I talked it live.

By default both /var and /usr filesystems are part of the Boot Environment. They are protected and snapshoted during the beadm create newbe process (or by bectl(8) also). Its appears that /var and /usr are separate processes when you type zfs list commend as shown on the slide below.

zroot-layout-01.png

… but when you check the canmount parameter for all ZFS datasets, then it become obvious that /usr and /var are ’empty’ datasets (not mounted).

zroot-layout-02.png

… and also confirmation from theΒ df(1) tool.

zroot-layout-03.png

I asked FreeBSD Developers what is the reason for such construct and its for the mountpoint inheritance purposes. For example when zroot/usr has mountpoint set to /usr then when you create zroot/usr/local dataset, then it will automatically get the /usr/local for the mountpoint parameter by inheritance. At the first sight it may be misleading (I also got caught) but it makes sense when you think about it.

The only filesystems that are NOT included for the Boot Environment protection are these:

  • /usr/home
  • /usr/ports
  • /usr/src
  • /var/audit
  • /var/crash
  • /var/log
  • /var/mail
  • /var/tmp

While in most cases it is not needed to protect these in the Boot Environment protection if you want to also protect these type these two comments to move all the /usr/* and /var/* datasets/filesystems into the Boot Environment pool/ROOT/dataset. It will work on a running system without need for reboot, just make sure you use -u flag.

# zfs rename -u zroot/usr zroot/ROOT/default/usr
# zfs rename -u zroot/var zroot/ROOT/default/var

Now grab that FreeBSD ISO and install it the best possible way up to date πŸ™‚

You will probably want to get amd64 version which is suitable for both 64-bit AMD and Intel systems.

EOF

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My FreeBSD Story

As Roman Zolotarev asked if I would write an entry for his Tell Your BSD Story page I could not refuse. I really tried to make it short and small but I guess its not that straight πŸ™‚

My first devices/computers/consoles (not at the same time) that I remember were Atari 2600 and Pegasus console which was hardware clone of the Nintendo NES.

atari-2600.png

Back then I did not even knew that it was Atari 2600 as I referred to it as Video Computer System … and I did not even knew any english by then. It took me about two decades to get to know (by accident) that this Video Computer System was Atari 2600 πŸ™‚

This equipment was used for playing computer games only.

Then I got AMIGA 600 computer (or should I say my parents bought it for me) which served both for playing computer games and also other activities for the first time. AMIGA is the computer that had the greatest influence on me, as it was the first time I studied the books about Amiga Workbench operating system and learned commands from Amiga Shell terminal. I loved the idea of Ram Disk icon/directory on the desktop that allowed me to transparently put any things in system memory. I still miss that concept on today’s desktop systems … and I still remember how dismal I was when I watched Amiga Deathbed Vigil movie.

amiga-600.png

At the end of 1998 I got my first PC that of course came with Windows and that computer served both as gaming machine and as well as typical tool. One time I dig into the internals with Windows Registry (which left me disgusted by its concepts and implementation) and its limited command line interface provided by CMD.EXE executable. I remember that the heart of this box was not the CPU or the motherboard but the graphics accelerator – the legendary 3Dfx Voodoo card. This company (3Dfx) – their attitude and philosophy – also left solid fingerprint on my way. Like AMIGA did.

Hence how the top of my laptop looks like now πŸ™‚

laptop.jpg

Some games was even released as special edition with the only feature being support for the 3Dfx Glide driver like Need for Speed II: Special Edition.

nfs.jpg

After ‘migration’ from AMIGA to PC it never again ‘felt right’. The games were cool but the Windows system was horrible. Time has passed and different Windows versions and hardware modifications took place. Windows XP felt really heavy at that time, not to mention Windows 2000 for example with even bigger hardware requirements. I also do not understand all the hate about Windows ME. It crashed with the same frequency as Windows 98 or later Windows 98 Second Edition but maybe my hardware was different πŸ™‚

windowsme.png

I do not have any ‘mine’ screenshots from that period as I lost all my 40 GB (huge then) drive of data when I moved/resized the partition with Partition Magic to get some more space from the less filled C: drive. That day I learned hard that “there are people who do backups and people who will do backups”. I never lost data again as I had multiple copies of my data, but the same as Netheril fall the lost data was was gone forever.

I always followed various alternatives which led me to try Linux in 2003, after reading about various distributions philosophies I decided to run Slackware Linux with KDE 3. My buddy used Aurox Linux by then (one of the few Linux distributions from Poland) and encouraged me to do the same – especially in the context of fixing possible problems as he already knew it and also as he recently dumped Windows system. But Slackware sounded like a better idea so I took that path instead. At first I dual booted between Windows XP and Slackware Linux cause I had everything worked out on the Windows world while I often felt helpless in the Linux world, so I would reboot into Windows to play some games or find a solution for Linux problem if that was required. I remember how strange the concept of dual clipboards (PRIMARY and SECONDARY) was for me by then. I was amazed why ‘so much better’ system as Linux (at least marketed that way) needs a system tray program to literally manage the clipboard. On Windows it was obvious, you do [CTRL]+[C] to copy and [CTRL]+[V] to paste things, but on Linux there (no I know its X11 feature) there were two clipboards that were synchronized by this little system tray program from KDE 3. It was also unthinkable for me that I will ‘lost’ contents of last/recent [CTRL]+[C] operation if I close the application from which the copy was made. I settled down a little on Slackware but not for long. I really did not liked manual dependency management for packages for example. Also KDE 3 was really ugly and despite trying all possible options I was not able to tweak it into something nice looking.

After half a year on Slackware I checked the Linux distributions again and decided to try Gentoo Linux. I definitely agree with the image below which visualizes Gentoo Linux experience, especially when You install it for he first time πŸ™‚

gentoo-fly

Of course I went with the most hardcore version with self building Stage 1 (compiler and toolchain) which was horrible idea at that time because compilation on slow single core machine took forever … but after many hours I got Gentoo installed. I now have to decide which desktop environment to use. I have read a lot of good news about Fluxbox at that time so this is what I tried. It was very weird experience (to create everything in GUI from scratch) but very pleasant one. That recalled me the times of AMIGA … but Linux came in the way too much often. The more I dig into Gentoo Linux the more I read that lots of Gentoo features are based on FreeBSD solutions. Gentoo Portage is a clone of FreeBSD Ports. That ‘central’ /etc/rc.conf system configuration file concept was taken from FreeBSD as well. So I started to gather information about FreeBSD. The (then) FreeBSD website or FreeBSD Ports site (still) felt little outdated to say the least but that did not discouraged me.

Somewhere in 2005 I installed FreeBSD 5.4 on my computer. The beginnings were hard, like the earlier step with Gentoo but similarly like Gentoo the FreeBSD project came with a lot of great documentation. While Gentoo documentation is concentrated within various Gentoo Wiki sites the FreeBSD project comes with ‘official’ documentation in the form of Handbook and FAQ. I remember my first questions at the now nonexistent BSDForums.org site – for example one of the first ones – how to scroll the terminal output in the plain console. I now know that I had to push Scroll Lock button but it was something totally new for me.

How BSDForums.org looked like.

bsdforums.png

This is the earliest screenshot I got from that period, and Gentoo setup looked very similar.

vermaden-2005.11.08.jpg

Why FreeBSD and not OpenBSD or NetBSD? Probably because Gentoo based most their concepts on the FreeBSD solutions, so that led me to FreeBSD instead of the other BSD operating systems. Currently I still use FreeBSD but I keep an steady eye on the OpenBSD, HardenedBSD and DragonFly BSD solutions and improvements.

As the migration path from Linux to FreeBSD is a lot easier – all configuration files from /home can be just copied – the migration was quite fast easy. I again had the Fluxbox configuration which I used on the Gentoo. Now – on FreeBSD – it started to fell even more like AMIGA times. Everything is/has been well thought and had its place and reason. The documentation was good and the FreeBSD Community was second to none.

I even decided to upgrade the hardware to something more exotic. I got Gigabyte-GA-7DPXDW server motherboard with dual CPU sockets – and as Athlon XP (desktop) processors were very easily modified to ‘be’ Athlon MP (server) ones I got also the second one along with 1 GB of ECC RAM.

gigabyte-GA-7DPXDW.jpg

This dual CPU setup – quite unusual at these times – server me very well. I switched from nvidia binary blob driver to software but open nv because nvidia would break my uptime every several days πŸ™‚

I accumulated 30 days of uptime on that desktop box, not bad for a system without any emergency UPS πŸ™‚

uptime-vermaden.png

This was also the last time I used ECC RAM on FreeBSD (at least on my boxes) while ZFS did not even existed on FreeBSD πŸ™‚ But as time flied I started to feel the need for something faster. As I also got interested in Intel graphics card I got the new motherboard with fastest Intel graphics card available then – as silly as it sounds – the Asus P5B-V with Intel X3000 GMA … and that was a terrible idea because FreeBSD graphics stack supported all the Intel graphics cards instead of that one. At the beginning I used software vesa driver but the problem was not the performance of the driver (as I also had quad core Intel Q6600 CPU) but the resolution on the screen. As I got 1280 x 1024 screen by then using limited 1024 x 768 was real PITA. I decided that I will try something else then FreeBSD will Intel X3000 support finally arrives. I needed to do something fast as I also needed to write my Masters Thesis at that time.

That was in the middle of 2007. I wanted to try the other end of the Linux distributions spectrum. Ubuntu. I could not go more ‘desktop’ way πŸ™‚ It of course installed gently with GNOME 2 environment and pulseaudio already unfortunately existed. As I preferred to run my computer all the time back then (I did not payed the electricity bills) there were several things that annoyed my very much. For example the mentioned pulseaudio – the sound freezed after one-two days of using the computer (even if I did not played any music or videos) and it stayed that way. I could restart pulseaudio or reload the ALSA modules but it stayed in this SUSFU state (situation unchanged still fucked up) until reboot. As I needed to finish my Masters Thesis I did not had time to reinstall into something else as pulseaudio will be probably similarly broken on other Linux distributions and FreeBSD was still lacking the Intel X3000 GMA support. Generally GNOME 2 experience was not bad but I really missed all my custom settings, keyboard shortcuts and customized behavior. I remained in pain on the Ubuntu for two months – to the time I have finished my Masters Thesis about Operating Systems’ Virtualization which you can download and read but its in Polish so use translator if needed πŸ™‚

This is how Ubuntu looked back then.

ubuntu.jpg

I also had ‘side’ journey to the Mac wonderland as I got opportunity to use Macbook Pro with Mac OS X Leopard for a year. That allowed me to get real ‘feel’ of the Mac ecosystem and their hardware (and philosophy) so I will not repeat same stereotypes over and over again like a lot of anti-apple people. But after I switched back to FreeBSD system at work it just felt better. I used Terminal.app on Mac a lot but the xterm(1) at FreeBSD just felt more natural.

What makes me laugh now that I created Mac styled Fluxbox themes years till I got to run Mac and I still like Mac OS X look from the Leopard times.

vermaden-2007.10.14-mac.png

There was time on which I also played with Solaris (and later OpenSolaris). I must admit that there was time when Solaris so called Java Desktop based on GNOME 2 was really looking good. It was so good that only Mac OS X could only rival it for the best looking os by then.

solaris-10-GNOME-2-java-desktop.png

I really liked Solaris concepts and solutions like Zones and ZFS, also Crossbow, Comstar or IPS (FreeBSD did not had PNGng by then). But I always got problem with ‘desktop’ software. While I had everything in the FreeBSD Ports – almost the same amount of applications that is available on Linux – there was always some applications lacking in the Solaris world.

The Solaris ‘journey’ also left print on my soul so my Fluxbox themes went into Solaris style πŸ™‚

vermaden-2007.07.30-solaris-java-fluxbox-system.png

After the Ubuntu fiasco I got other motherboard as FreeBSD still did not supported Intel GMA X3000 card and settled in the FreeBSD land again. What a relief it was after this pulseaudio nonsense. In the meantime as I read a lot of good experiences about Openbox I decided to try it out instead of Fluxbox. It was strange feeling to mess with XML configuration files at the beginning but as I got used to it and ordered the rc.xml and menu.xml configuration files properly it was not a problem. Since then I used FreeBSD on different machines including physical servers, virtual machines and laptops. I learned that adequate supported hardware is the most important factor in FreeBSD ecosystem.

I still use Openbox and still use FreeBSD today and my desktop looks like that one below.

vermaden-NOW.jpg

After 15 years of using various Windows, UNIX (macOS/AIX/HP-UX/Solaris/OpenSolaris/Illumos/FreeBSD/OpenBSD/NetBSD) and UNIX-like (Linux) systems I always come to conclusion that FreeBSD is the system that sucks least. And sucks least with each release and one day I will write why FreeBSD is such great operating system … if I already haven’t πŸ™‚

UPDATE 1

As Roman Zolotarev got a moment he added my story to his Tell Your BSD Story page.

Thanks Roman!

You may check it for yourself at Slawomir Wojciech Wojtczak (vermaden) runs FreeBSD page.

EOF

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Valuable News – 2018/08/25

UNIX

OpenBSD adds kcov(4) kernel code coverage tracing driver.
So far 8 distinct panics have been found and fixed.
https://marc.info/?l=openbsd-cvs&m=153467896308034&w=2

GCC 8.2 now packaged and available in Illumos/OpenIndiana.
https://bsd.network/@sehnsucht/100581557620270760
https://pkg.openindiana.org/hipster/info/0/developer%2Fgcc-8%408.2.0%2C5.11-2018.0.0.0%3A20180815T204704Z

FreeBSD arc4random is now based on ChaCha20 implementation from OpenBSD.
https://twitter.com/lattera/status/1031280553301925888
https://svnweb.freebsd.org/base?view=revision&revision=338059

Valve forked WINE into Proton as compatibility tool for Steam Play.
https://github.com/ValveSoftware/Proton/
https://steamcommunity.com/games/221410/announcements/detail/1696055855739350561

AMD Threadripper 2990WX 32-core/64-thread on DragonFly BSD.
http://apollo.backplane.com/DFlyMisc/threadripper.txt
http://lists.dragonflybsd.org/pipermail/users/2018-August/357858.html

Using 10GE Adapters with PowerVM SEA – Virtual Ethernet Considerations.
http://ibmsystemsmag.com/aix/administrator/virtualization/using-10gbit-ethernet-adapters/

Native ZFS Encryption on FreeBSD CFT on the road to 12.0-RELEASE.
https://lists.freebsd.org/pipermail/freebsd-current/2018-August/070832.html

Backup FreeNAS and TrueNAS to Backblaze B2 Cloud.
https://www.backblaze.com/blog/how-to-setup-freenas-cloud-storage/

Colin Percival heroic (I am not joking here) fight for removing unneeded sleeps during boot on FreeBSD.
https://twitter.com/cperciva/status/1031928231635677184
https://reviews.freebsd.org/D16723

Writing SYSTEMD service files.
https://twitter.com/mulander/status/1031908074733428736
https://obsd.pl/mfm/iptables/

Illumos/Tribblix packages of openjdk9 and openjdk10 available.
https://twitter.com/ptribble/status/1031650238266789893
https://twitter.com/ptribble/status/1031900360271491074
http://pkgs.tribblix.org/openjdk/

Difference between OpenBSD xenodm and regular xdm.
https://undeadly.org/cgi?action=article&sid=20160911231712

X.Org Security Advisory – 2018/08/21.
http://seclists.org/oss-sec/2018/q3/146

FreeBSD removes legacy DRM and DRM2 from its tree.
https://twitter.com/f0andrey/status/1032234624544583680
https://svnweb.freebsd.org/base?view=revision&revision=338172

OmniOS CE (Community Edition) r151026p/r151024ap/r151022bn with CVE-2018-15473 addressed.
https://omniosce.org/article/releases-026p-024ap-022bn.html

Running Mastodon on FreeBSD.
https://ftfl.ca/blog/2017-05-23-mastodon-freebsd.html

Upgrading Mastodon on FreeBSD.
https://ftfl.ca/blog/2017-05-27-mastodon-freebsd-upgrade.html

KDE Plasma 5.x on Pinebook Laptop.
https://twitter.com/SoftpediaLinux/status/1032262240437723137

FreeBSD – Raspberry Pi 3B+ – UART.
https://blackdot.be/2018/08/freebsd-uart-and-raspberry-pi-3-b/

FreeBSD – Raspberry Pi 3B+ – Remote Access Console.
https://blackdot.be/2018/08/remote-access-console-using-raspberry-pi-3b-and-freebsd/

FreeBSD 12.x has LUA loader enabled by default.
https://twitter.com/bsdimp/status/1031638933690441728

In Other BSDs for 2018/08/18.
https://www.dragonflydigest.com/2018/08/18/21609.html

Shared library load order randomization in HardenedBSD for use with Firefox/Chromium/Iridium.
https://twitter.com/lattera/status/1030823681843507202

Researchers Blame ‘Monolithic’ Linux Code Base for Critical Vulnerabilities.
https://threatpost.com/researchers-blame-monolithic-linux-code-base-for-critical-vulnerabilities/136785/

2018/08/23 is the End of Life for NetBSD 6.x tree.
https://www.netbsd.org/changes/#netbsd6eol

Carlos Neira ZCAGE is now able to create BHYVE Branded Zones on Illumos.
https://bsd.network/@sehnsucht/100599247272911030
https://www.npmjs.com/package/zcage
https://asciinema.org/a/QLnjO8J2NVVPQrs3jh0EKEGta

FreeNAS 11.1-U6 Available.
https://twitter.com/FreeBSD_News/status/1032666675194167297
https://www.ixsystems.com/blog/library/freenas-11-1-u6/

FreeBSD vs. DragonFly BSD vs. Linux on AMD Threadripper 2990WX.
https://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=article&item=bsd-threadripper-2990wx

Disable SMT/Hyperthreading in all Intel BIOSes – Theo de Raadt.
https://marc.info/?l=openbsd-tech&m=153504937925732&w=2

OpenSSH 7.8 Released.
https://www.openssh.com/releasenotes.html#7.8

TRIM Consolidation on UFS/FFS Filesystems on FreeBSD.
https://lists.freebsd.org/pipermail/freebsd-current/2018-August/070797.html

FreeBSD vt(4) will now cache most recently drawn text to not redraw it.
https://reviews.freebsd.org/D16723

What is New in Solaris 11.4?
https://www.oracle.com/a/ocom/docs/dc/sev100738019-ww-us-on-ce1-ie1a-ev.html

OpenBSD Foundation gets first 2018 Iridium ($100K+) donation.
https://undeadly.org/cgi?action=article;sid=20180824145543

How to Run a More Secure Browser.
https://www.dragonflybsd.org/docs/docs/handbook/RunSecureBrowser/

Hardware

IBM POWER9 E950 and E980 Servers Launched.
https://www.servethehome.com/ibm-power9-e950-and-e980-servers-launched/

Intel Microcode EULA Prohibits Benchmarking!
https://twitter.com/RaptorEng/status/1031919319909892096
https://pastebin.com/raw/J8MXpPdh

GIGABYTE Cavium ThunderX2 1U and 2U Systems.
https://www.anandtech.com/show/13234/gigabyte-starts-sales-of-cavium-thunderx2-to-general-customers

Fujitsu Presents Post-K arm64 A64FXβ„’ CPU CPU Specifications with 48 Computing Cores and 4 Assistant Cores.
http://www.fujitsu.com/global/about/resources/news/press-releases/2018/0822-02.html

A4000TX ATX Motherboard.
http://www.amibay.com/showthread.php?101477-A4000TX-ATX-Amiga-motherboard

IBM POWER9 Scale Up CPUs with Huge IO and Effective 32 Channel DDR4.
https://www.servethehome.com/ibm-power9-hc30/

Life

Why We Sleep by Matthew Walker review – how more sleep can save your life.
https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/sep/21/why-we-sleep-by-matthew-walker-review
https://youtube.be/pwaWilO_Pig

Bullshit jobs and the yoke of managerial feudalism.
https://www.economist.com/open-future/2018/06/29/bullshit-jobs-and-the-yoke-of-managerial-feudalism

Why Garbagemen Should Earn More Than Bankers.
https://evonomics.com/why-garbage-men-should-earn-more-than-bankers/

Solitude.
https://www.pa-mar.net/Lifestyle/Solitude.html

Akrasia Effect – Why We Dont Follow Through on What We Set Out to Do and What to Do About It.
https://jamesclear.com/akrasia

Other

Move/migrate Oracle and MySQL databases to PostgreSQL.
http://www.ora2pg.com/start.html
https://github.com/darold/ora2pg/releases

LIDL Killed SAP Migration After Spending 500 Million Dollars.
https://it.toolbox.com/blogs/clintonjones/lidl-cans-sap-project-after-spending-half-a-billion-073118

All BlackHat 2018 Attendee Registration Data Hacked and Available via Unauthenticated API.
https://ninja.style/post/bcard/
https://twitter.com/binitamshah/status/1032084847345459204

GOG Launches FCKDRM to Promote DRM-Free Art and Media.
https://torrentfreak.com/gog-launches-fckdrm-to-promote-drm-free-art-and-media-180822/

EOF